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P R E F A C E. 

THE Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne was 
written in the year 1868, at the request of an 
intimate friend, and with no view of publication. It 
was revised by the writer towards the end of his 
life, when he both inserted some passages bearing 
reference to a later date, and omitted others which 
he appears to have considered less suitable for 
general readers. It is from this revised copy that 
the greater portion of the following pages has been 

The Autobiography is not carried on later than 
the year 1850. Comparatively few letters have 
been preserved that would illustrate this earlier 
period of the Archbishop's life ; but subsequent to 
that date a large number exist, from which a selec- 
tion has been made so as in some manner to carry 
on the history to the end. In a letter addressed 
to the friend for whose perusal the original Auto- 
biography was drawn up, the writer remarks : "Two 
objections to giving such a narrative have made me 
somewhat reluctant to comply with your request. 
One is the necessary egotism of such a narrative, 
and the other, the fact that the external and visible 
outlines which are all that I can touch on give no 

viii Preface. 

fair representation of that veritable life which is 
wholly of the soul." In selecting the letters to be 
given to the public, which form the Second Part 
of this publication, and which will fill a separate 
Volume, it has been the desire of the Editors 
in some degree to supply the want here alluded to, 
by choosing those which present the reader with 
some of the stores of spiritual wisdom which en- 
riched the mind of the writer, rather than such as 
would merely illustrate his public Episcopal career. 

Unfortunately, the Archbishop did not live to 
complete the revision of his autobiography, the latter 
portion of which } as here published, has had to be 
drawn from the unrevised copy. Besides the Auto- 
biography, he left a collection of anecdotes, written 
at rather a later period, which it was his intention to 
have woven into the narrative in their proper place, 
an intention he never had leisure to carry out. 
These, therefore, have now been either included 
in the body of the narrative or added as illustrative 
notes. A few passages in the Life have, for obvious 
reasons, been either omitted or briefly summarised, 
according to what would seem to have been the 
purpose of the writer ; but all such abridgments 
are included within brackets. 

September loth, 1891. 





I \\ AS born at Pocklington, in Yorkshire, on the 7th of 
May in the year 1806, and was the eldest often children. 
My father was a grocer, draper, and spirit merchant, and 
did half the business of the town, supplying it with coal, 
before it had a canal, and, in the absence of a bank, dis- 
counting bills. His father had descended from gentle 
birth, but owing to a singular incident he became a shoe- 
maker, and afterwards a farmer. For his father was a 
gentleman of landed estate in the West Riding of .York- 
shire, which estate he acquired through his marriage with 
Miss Binks, to whom it came as heiress of Mr Binks, who 
had married Miss More, a lineal descendant of Sir Thomas 
More, the Chancellor and Martyr, and the sister of Mrs. 
Waterton, who is commemorated by her grandson, the 
celebrated traveller and naturalist of Waterton Hall, in his 

The estate was forfeited through the insurrection of 
1745 in favour of the claims of the Stuarts, after which my 
grandfather and his brother Francis were taken in charge 

2 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

by Dr. Lawrence, of York. The two boys, however, were 
so terrified at the discovery of a skeleton in a cupboard in 
their bedroom that they both ran away. My grandfather 
apprenticed himself to a shoemaker, his brother fled to 
London, and there engaged himself to a chemist, and thus 
the turn in the fortunes of the family was completed. 

My dear mother was a native of Spilsby, in Lincolnshire, 
of which county her father was Chief Constable. Sir John 
Franklin, the Arctic navigator, was her cousin, and next- 
door neighbour in their youthful days. She well remem- 
bered Sir Joseph Banks, of Captain Cook's exploring 
expedition, under whose influence young Franklin went 
to sea. 

My father met my mother in London, where they were 
both engaged in Townshend's great drapery business in 
Holborn ; he converted her to the faith and then married 
her, after which they commenced business in Pocklington 
on their own account. As my father was a popular char- 
acter, and my mother was greatly esteemed and respected 
for her gentle kindness and her good sense, their children 
were much noticed and every house was open to them. 

I was sent to learn my first letters from a Miss Plummer, 
the daughter of a Protestant clergyman, who lived to a 
very advanced age. At home, I learnt to say my prayers 
at my mother's knee ; and although she was engaged all 
day in business, yet, with the aid of a confidential servant, 
devoted up to old age to the family, she contrived to keep 
us in good order and discipline. Indeed, a grave look from 
her was always a sufficient correction. My imagination as 
a child was extremely vivid, and communicated a sense of 
life to much that I looked upon in nature. I can recollect 
being led, by the hand as a little child, past a garden 
covered with snow, through which a group of snowdrops 
and crocuses peered out, and they seemed to me to be 
living creatures coming up in their innocence from the 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 3 

earth. The corn in the fields was to me a great mystery, 
especially when it turned from green to brown ; and when 
cut and gathered into sheaves, I thought they had killed 
the corn to make bread of it. Another childish experience 
that set my mind a wondering, was the exercising of the 
militia on the public green, in those warlike times. To see 
all those red-coated, black-gaitered men with feathers in 
their hats, moving, like one will in all their bodies, at the 
voice of a man with a different shaped hat, was the cause 
to me of many surmises. The nurse used to subdue us into 
good behaviour by the threat that Buonaparte was coming; 
and I used to picture him as a little man with a big cocked 
hat and a great sword in his hand, going in his solitary- 
strength and sternness from house to house, killing all the 
people. Now and then a sailor would pass through the 
place, deprived of a leg or an arm, holding in his one hand 
or dragging on wheels a little ship, and singing with brazen 
lungs about " We boarded the Frenchman," which led to 
talk among our elders about the wars, and set the 
children's minds on their first wonderings about the great 
world abroad. 

How shall I recall the joys of my first remembered 
Christmas joys, not of the eye or the palate, but of the 
imagination ? The being awakened in the night to hear 
the playing and singing of the waits. Rude enough they 
might seem to other ears, but to the child, awakened out 
of sleep, it was little less than celestial harmony. The 
young imagination, in its glow, peopled all the heavens 
with beautiful angels, flying happily among the falling 
flakes of snow, and singing the invitation : " Christians 
awake, salute the happy morn, whereon the Saviour of 
mankind was born." On the next day came the expected 
visitor, old Nanny Cabbage, in her red cloak and black 
bonnet, and, though a Protestant, producing from under 
her cloak her little houselein, with its holly, its two red 

4 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

apples stuck on pegs, and between them the Child Jesus in 
His cradle, when, courtesying to the family, she sang the 
" Seven Joys of Mary," to the delight of the children. Relic 
this of the old Catholic times, which I fear has passed 
away with many other traditions. Things like these were 
educating me, if we attend to the sense of the word, much 
more than Miss Plummer's lessons in reading and spelling. 
After being rigged in a suit of boys' clothes, the great 
transition of childhood, my father took me with him to 
York, where the walk by his side through the Cathedral* 
gave me such an impression of awe and grandeur, such a 
sense of religion, that for many a long day my imagination 
fed itself upon that wonderful recollection. I was told, of 
course, that the marvellous structure had been the work of 
Catholics long ago. It did not so much astonish me as 
elevate me by its sublimity. The city walls and Clifford's 
Tower perplexed my young mind as to their use and object ; 
but after two or three explanations had failed I was told 
that, " if Buonaparte came, they would get in there and 
fight him out," and this satisfied me. I can recall, as though 
it were yesterday, the tender tones in which all my questions 
were answered. The father seemed to feel what was passing 
in the mind of the child on that first great day of its de- 
velopment. York Minster was visible, as a great and con- 

He had, however, been already used to gaze at the Minster from a 
distance. " Easter Sunday afternoon," he writes, " was a great festival 
at Pocklington from an old tradition. A large number of all classes 
of the population, men, women, and children, went up to Spring Hill, 
Chapel Hill, or Primrose Hill, for it was called by all these names, and 
gave a distant view of York Minster. There, by the ruins of the old chapel 
and at the clear spring sat half Pocklington, the children with sweets 
in their bottles, and the grown people with wine and spirits in theirs, 
tempering them with water from the spring, picking violets and prim- 
roses, and enjoying themselves with great freedom. I have no doubt 
this chapel was a place of pilgrimage in the olden days." In another 
letter he says : " It was Mr. Holmes, the solicitor, a great friend of my 
father, who first introduced me to the " Arabian Nights." I visited his 
son some years ago, and took my last leave of old Pocklington, with a 
look at York Minster from Primrose Hill." 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 5 

spicuous object, from a hill near our residence, though some 
ten miles distant ; so I now could animate that mysterious 
mass of pointed stone, and recall its lofty arches, its 
gorgeous windows, and the figures of kings and bishops in 
their mysterious sleep, that stood in their niches or lay on 
their tombs. 

Who can say how much of our future tastes and mental 
tendencies are unconsciously derived from the early im- 
pressions made upon us by the more elevated forms of art ? 
I can remember what an impression was made upon my 
mind by the first sight of a Greek statue. It was a Flora 
standing in the open air among rich foliage, and literally 
dropping honey, for the bees had made their combs within 
the wreath on the head and the folds of the garment. The 
colourless creature seemed to sleep with open eyes, as she 
stood in her beauty. And I suppose it was one of my 
earliest lessons in abstraction, for she seemed to be a spirit 
of a different world from that in which I lived ; with whom 
there could be no communication by speech, though she 
seemed to think even in her sleep. She simply made me 
very silent* 

There was a little chapel at Pocklington with only two 
windows in it, a small presbytery, and a long slip of garden. 
The priest was the Abbe Fidele, a venerable French emi- 
grant, long remembered there and at York for his piety, 
simplicity, and charity. He used to kneel before the little 

* This statue was one that stood in the grounds of Kilnwick Hall, 
near Pocklington. Writing, in 1887, to Mr. Hudson, a native of Pock- 
lington, but then residing at Baddesly Clinton, near Birmingham, the 
Bishop says : " Kilnwick Hall was the first gentleman's mansion I had 
ever seen as a child, and with my quick imagination I was struck with 
the ideal beauty of certain statues of Greek form among the trees in 
the woods. The gardener pointed out a statue of Flora, in the folds 
of whose garments the bees had formed a hive, and the honey flowed 
down to the feet from the ccmbs. I have never forgotten the im- 
pression of this, my first introduction to the sculptor's art, though I 
daresay the figures were nothing particular. But it was an opening 
of the young mind to the ideal." 

6 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

altar in a Welsh or worsted wig, saying his prayers, until 
Miss Constable, the patroness of the mission, arrived in the 
vestry, which was also his dining-room and parlour ; he 
then rose up and entered the vestry, where in sight of the 
little flock he pulled off his wig, powdered his head, and 
came in vested with his two servers for the Mass. I was 
told at a later period that he had four written sermons, and 
that when he had read the first words of one of them the 
congregation knew the rest by heart. Other French emi- 
grant priests occasionally visited our house, and I remember 
one was Dr. Gilbert, a man of great dignity of bearing, 
who told us dreadful narratives of his escapes from the 
guillotine. He was afterwards raised to an important pre- 
lacy in France. 

It is very odd that our old nurse, who was so fond of us, 
and often heard our prayers when our mother was engaged, 
was a strong Methodist, and used sometimes to express in 
our hearing her contempt for priests and "their trumpery." 

As soon as I was able to read, I got hold of a pictorial 
book of Bible stories, lent me by a lady, which gave me an 
early interest in the sacred Scriptures ; and, as I grew a 
little older, I used to read with wondering pleasure the 
Hook of Genesis, and with still more delight the Book of 
Revelations, in the Protestant version (for I do not suppose 
that at that time my parents knew that we had an 
English Catholic version). My father had an intimate 
friend, a Mr. Holmes, a solicitor, a man of a bright face and 
cheerful ringing laugh, who was fond of reading good lite- 
rature aloud. He was quite a character and passionately 
fond of the drama. He lent me the " Arabian Nights," 
" Gulliver's Travels," and other books, which fostered my 
imaginative tendency. Yet there were graver tendencies 
as well. The following anecdote is simple enough, but it 
records a great opening of my mind. A book of arithmetic 
was lying on the table where my father was busy with 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 7 

accounts. It was still a sealed book to my childish under- 
standing. I took it up and fell at the numeration table. To 
me it looked so complicated, with its many figures, that 
I declared I should never understand it. " No ?" he said, " let 
us see." He took me kindly between his knees and ex- 
plained it. It seemed so simple that from that moment 1 
was never afraid of what looked complicated, but felt assured 
that it only required a key to make it clear and intelligible. 
I was a heavy, clumsy urchin, with what a Protestant 
clergyman's daughter described as " large blobbing eyes," 
silent when not asked to give an account of my reading, 
but always ready to give that account. I cared little for 
play * and my parents did not know what they could ever 
make of me. My second brother was active and agile, 
and this made me look all the more lumpy in the eyes of 
my neighbours, and awakened many'ajoke at my expense. 
The climax of my literary enjoyment was when " Robinson 
Crusoe " came into my hands. I never tired of reading it, 
and of talking of it to anyone who chose to draw me out. 
I believe it did much to give me a taste for the sea, at a 

* Among the Bishop's recollections of his childhood, however, were 
some which prove that he shared in some of the sports wherein boys 
delight, especially in the catching of what are known as "horsehair 
eels," which abounded in the " beck " or stream which ran through Pock- 
lington. The memory of these eels having been referred to by his 
correspondent, Mr. Hudson, he replies: "We also caught the hair 
eels as you did, believing them to be vitalised horse-hairs. We had 
another tradition about these horse-hairs, that if you put one on your 
palm when the schoolmaster called you up to beferu/ed, it would split 
the ferule. We also caught stickle-backs, which we called bull-heads/' 
He also refers to a certain baker's shop, " which we youngsters also 
knew as a place where sweets could be got." " The keenness and 
piquancy of the Bishop's recollections of localities and people," writes 
Mr. Hudson, " remembering that he left Pocklington at ten years old, 
was quite exceptional. He overflowed in anecdoteand artless memories 
about them. It is satisfactory to state that he had not forgotten 
native tongue, but could speak with readiness of " t' house" and 
" t' man," and so on. Such reminiscences, mingled with those of 
Vatican Councils at which he had assisted, and Popes and Cardinals 
with whom he had associated, contrasted curiously. 

8 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

later period ; and when in the course of my missionary life 
I sailed in fine weather past Juan Fernandez, all the dreams 
of my early life were reawakened. 

We could not have been more than seven and eight years 
old respectively, when I and my next brother were sent to 
school at the village of Burnby, some two miles from home. 
The master of the school was a character and had a 
reputation, and my father had learnt English grammar 
under him. We went on the Monday morning and 
returned home on the Saturday afternoon, lodging at the 
village blacksmith's, whose wife had been my nurse ; not the 
Methodist nurse of the whole family, but another, whose 
conversion from Church of Englandism to Methodism 
with her whole family I witnessed with all the fanatical 
accompaniments of those times. 

We slept in a dark attic under the thatch of their cottage, 
illuminated only by one pane of glass. As we sat, in the 
winter evenings, by the fire in the brick floored room 
which served " for kitchen, parlour, and hall," we heard a 
good deal of pious sentiment uttered in an unctuous drawl ; 
but there was much more vigorous talk on agricultural 
matters, intertwined with the gossip and small scandal of 
the village, of which the blacksmith's shop was the focus. 
Sometimes we got the privilege of taking a turn at the great 
bellows, or of hitting the cold chisel with the big hammer 
that cut the glowing horseshoe nail from the rod of iron, 
of which my brother was fonder than I was. And some- 
times we got a half-holiday to help to plant the family 

The schoolmaster, I have said, was a character. He was 
a grave, self-contained man, who, when he unbent at the 
firesides of the farmers, could talk of many things which 
to them and to us left the impression of learning beyond 
our aspirations. He was not only the oracle, but the man 
of business of the village : he adjusted his neighbour's 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 9 

accounts and surveyed their land, when we were sometimes 
called on to drag the chains and to plant the flags and 
pegs. All the village had been at school to " the master," 
and he lived week and week about at all their houses. At 
the house to which he came it was a sort of festive time : 
neighbours looked in in the evening ; he had his special 
armchair and his glass, and, when invited, would sing one 
of his three songs in a grave, sweet voice, or, between the 
puffs of his pipe, tell us stories of the war or of other 
men's travels. We had our annual barring out and our 
annual school feast, to which all the fathers and mothers, 
with their young men and maidens, were invited. It was 
the great event of the year. The school-house had mud 
walls, thatched roof, and a clay floor, but it turned out 
good accountants and land surveyors. The 5th of 
November was a high day for the school. After dinner 
the pupils got the keys of the church, rang the bells, 
sported among the pews, and fired off little cannon in the 
church until twilight came, when they were succeeded by 
the farm lads and lasses, who carried on the saturnalia 
until late in the night. Another custom savoured more of 
the old Catholic times. A funeral was rare, but when it 
occurred the whole population assembled, sang the psalms 
in procession to the old chants, and afterwards received a 
distribution of bread and beer at the house of the de- 

By express arrangement we were not to learn the Pro- 
testant catechism ; but as we sat over our books whilst it 
was said, we had it all from memory by simply hearing it 

Still dreamy and clumsy, and getting a fair amount of 
gibes for it, I lived in my imagination. I remember going 
all the way back to school to search for my task-book. 
The master said : " What are you looking for ? " " For 
my book." " What is that under your arm ? " And there 

io Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

it had been all the time safe enough. The master had 
more than once hard work to conquer my pride, in which 
he unfortunately failed. For the more he thrashed me, the 
more I quietly, but desperately, stiffened my spirit to 
endure, and afterwards boasted that he had not conquered. 

After a certain time we passed from the blacksmith's to 
lodge at the wheelwright's, whose wife was the daughter of 
the old village clergyman, and who had a brother-in-law 
the clergyman of a neighbouring village. Here we had 
better accommodation and pleasant company. I still bear 
the marks on my fingers of the chops they got from 
bungling with the great axe in the wheelwright's shop. 
Here we saw a certain amount of the Protestant clerical 
society of the high and dry school, which gave us no idea 
of there being much religion in it, and which strangely 
contrasted with the spirit of the devout Abbe Fidele. I 
remember that when the annual Sacrament Sunday came 
round, I think on Easter Day, it was preceded by a good 
deal of talk as of an event like the annual Christmas party 
given in the house. One of the daughters asked: "Mother, 
is Jim to go to the Sacrament ? " She replied : " No, Jim 
must not go, he would drink it all up. You know it is only 
a little taste." Poor Jim was the big apprentice to the 
trade. Burnby was a lonely little place ; we seldom saw 
a stranger, and if one rode through it on horseback at rare 
intervals, he seemed to me to come out of some unknown 
world, and to pass into another. 

But a crisis came upon the village, hitherto so peaceful 
and united as one family. A group of Methodists ap- 
peared one evening upon the village green, praying and 
singing hymns. Week after week this group appeared on 
the green, sundry convictions of sin and conversion took 
place ; and among the rest there was one that made a 
great sensation. It was the case of a particularly steady 
young man, son of the chief farmer. He got his convic- 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. \\ 

tion and some visionary view whilst sitting on a stile, and 
became a Methodist of the Methodists. As Christmas 
approached there was much discussion as to whether he 
would come to the Christmas parties, or sing his good 
songs, or play at cards. He came to the parties, but 
neither sang nor played at cards. At last the black- 
smith received the preachers into his house, and it became 
their chapel ; but we had already left it for the wheel- 
wright's. From this time the village was divided, and got 
uncomfortable in its social relations, and its old simplicity 
was sadly marred. 

As to the old schoolmaster, I never knew until after 
years that he was devoid of any kind of religious 
principle. I saw him in his decay, about the year 1850, 
just before he died, in company with Bishops Briggs, 
Gillis, and Brown, on our way through Pocklington to the 
mansion of Lord Herries, to open a church at Howden. 
The poor old man had lost all his savings through the 
failure of a bank, and was helped in his distress by his old 
pupils. I asked him privately if he had done his best to 
make his peace with God, and he assured me he had. 

The things I have described were not without their 
practical influence in opening my intelligence to the then 
existing state of Protestant and sectarian life. They 
awakened my curiosity though they presented no attrac- 
tion to my youthful mind. We had our Sundays at home, 
but I am afraid that our prayers during the week were 
limited to the sign of the Cross, the Our Father, Hail 
Mary, and the Creed. 



I SUPPOSE I must have been between nine and ten years 
old when my father transferred his residence and business 
to Scarborough. He there became popular by breaking 
down a system of union among tradesmen to keep up prices 
at a point agreed upon, and by cheapening the grocery, 
drapery, and wine trades one after another. Here I first 
saw the sea, the object of my aspirations from the time I 
had read " Robinson Crusoe," and I recollect all the circum- 
stances of my first view of it from the top of the northern 
cliffs, and the expansion which that wonder of creation 
gave to my mind. My second brother and I were placed 
as day scholars at Mr. Hornsey's school, which had some 
reputation both as a boarding and day school. Hornsey 
was a genuine pedant as well as pedagogue, and the fact of 
his having published an English grammar and some other 
elementary books did not diminish the importance of the 
man. We stood in awe of him, and of his moral lessons, 
given with pompous intonation when occasion served. 
But we took more kindly to his son and to a second usher, 
who was preparing for the Anglican ministry. He taught 
his own grammar ; but though I was quick and fond of 
knowledge, he never explained or taught us to apply the 
principles of grammar. He was a well-meaning man of the 
high and dry Protestant type, and conspicuous from afar, 
with his portly figure, white hat, clouded cane, and decided 
strut. I think, however, that I got my mind more enlarged 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 13 

through one of the boys, who had a collection of voyages 
and travels, which he lent to his companions at a penny a 

Two of my brothers attended the school of a Protestant 
clergyman, who was assisted by his two clerical sons. It 
will surprise the later generations of Scarborough to know 
that this school was held in the transept of the old Church 
of St. Mary's, which was walled off for the purpose. It had 
formerly belonged to an Augustinian monastery. I re- 
member how angry my father was, when he found that one 
of his sons, following the custom of the school, had put 
out the eyes of Queen Mary with a pin, in Goldsmith's 
" History of England." 

Whilst our education was going on in these Protestant 
schools, we laboured under a great disadvantage in only 
having a priest at Scarborough one Sunday in six weeks. 
This was a great disappointment to my parents, who knew 
there was a good chapel and presbytery in the place, but 
did not find out that there was no resident priest until they 
had fixed their own residence. Mr. Haydock, the editor of 
Haydock's Bible, came once in three months; and Mr. 
Woodcock, of Egton Bridge, also came once in three 
months. They were both Douay priests, and as they 
generally dined at our house, I used to be much entertained 
with their college stories. On the five Sundays intervening 
between their sacerdotal visits, it was arranged that the 
flock should attend chapel morning and afternoon as usual, 
and my father and Mr. Pexton (who had been a Church 
student at Ushaw, but had given up the idea of the 
ministry) were appointed to act as readers on alternate 
Sundays. First the usual English prayers were said aloud, 
then all in silence read the prayers for Mass in the 
" Garden of the Soul," making a sort of spiritual Com- 
munion, and then the lector for the week read one of 
Archer's sermons, which my father did from his usual seat, 

14 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

but Mr. Pexton stood before the Communion-rails facing 
the people. In the afternoon the usual psalms and prayers 
were said aloud and the children said their catechism to the 
lectors. None of us youths had made our first Communion; 
and as to Confirmation, we had none of us ever seen a 
bishop, either at Pocklington or at Scarborough. There 
were only four in all England and Wales. 

At twelve years old my father took me from school and 
put me to his business, with the idea that if I returned to 
school again, after two years of trade, I should better ap- 
preciate the value of a school, and should be able to apply 
my mind with more practical intelligence to such mercantile 
education as I required. I trudged on for twelve months, 
getting an insight into my father's three businesses, and 
into the method of managing account books and money 
transactions, but with no great taste for this kind of occu- 
pation. In the evenings I was indulged by being allowed 
to follow my passion for reading, which I did by running 
through all the books that tempted me by their titles in 
the two circulating libraries then in the town. Voyages 
and travels were still my leading attraction, though I did 
also run through many rubbishy novels and romances. I 
followed my reading after everyone had gone to bed, and 
put my book under my pillow for a fresh start in the 
morning before business began. 

This miscellaneous and undirected reading filled me 
with a strong desire to see the world, and as the only way 
of accomplishing this, I set my mind on going to sea. To 
this proposal my mother and father long and justly ob- 
jected, but seeing that I was bent in that direction, they 
yielded at last, still hoping that I should sicken of it after 
trial. A Scarborough ship was to be my destiny, and I 
was nearly put under the roughest and most cruel tyrant 
that ever sailed from that port, a man who had hung up 
his own son by the thumbs, and whose atrocities to his 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathornc, 15 

apprentices had become a proverb among seamen. But 
providentially my father found out his character in time to 
save me from him. 

Happily for me, a fine brig was going to be launched, 
whose owners were my father's friends, and which was to 
be commanded by a captain superior to the ordinary run 
of mercantile captains, a man of gentlemanly manners 
and feelings, and whose wife, a superior woman, always 
sailed with him. I can never forget the kindness of Mrs. 
Wrougham to me. Our officers and crew were also picked 
men, connected with decent persons in Scarborough. One 
of my father's assistants, a man of mature years, having 
taken a fancy to the sea, sailed in the same ship. 

When, however, the Rev. Mr. Haydock came next Sun- 
day to Scarborough, he looked very gravely on the notion 
of my going to sea. He saw its perils for a youth of my 
proud character, spoke seriously against it, and was evi- 
dently distressed. But finding it was all settled, he told 
me to go to him to prepare to receive the Sacraments 
before I left. But alas ! in my boy's conceit, fostered 
by all this reading, by my fondness for isolating myself, 
and musing alone on the cliffs and sea beach, I fancied 
that the good priest was obtruding too much on what 
concerned me. I did not go to him at the time appointed, 
and even spoke of it to the shopmen and servants, who 
let me see that this did not edify them. Pained at my 
breaking his appointment, the good priest sent for me 
again, and when I reached the sacristy he made me stand 
at the door and gave me a grave rebuke, which did not 
advance matters. Had he been sympathetic perhaps ho 
would have won me ; but that is no excuse. I went to 
sea without the Sacraments. 

LIFE AT SEA, 1819. 

WE were proud of our brig, the Leghorn ; she was hand- 
some, quick, and easily handled. We literally walked past 
most craft of our kind and trim. I was cabin boy, and my 
dear mother had stipulated with Captain Wrougham that 
I should not go aloft for the first three months. We took 
out a cargo of merchandise from Newcastle to Leghorn ; 
went thence to Barcelona, and then to Tarragona, where 
we shipped a cargo of nuts for Hull. The nuts were 
brought by long strings of mules, over the mountains ; were 
then sorted on long tables, by women in the stores, and 
shot out of sacks into the hold like corn. The captain 
treated me almost like his son, kept me a good deal aloof 
from the sailors, except in the night watches, and never let 
me go ashore except with himself. 

I soon attracted the attention of the sailors by beguiling 
the night watches with stories from my readings under the 
lee of the long boat, repeating large portions, among other 
things, of Sir Walter Scott's earliest novels. This, with 
the knowledge they had of my friends, made me respected 
among them, although they did not fail to give me the 
rough side of their tongue now and then, especially for 
my want of smartness in action, the favourite quality of a 

A specimen of this kind of regard for me was curiously 
exhibited at Gibraltar. As we entered the Bay and looked 
upon the tremendous Rock, with its projecting cannon, I 

Aiitobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 17 

was in a romantic rapture, not at all diminished by a shot 
sent between our masts from the batteries for neglecting to 
hoist our colours. Having care, of them, I made but one 
step off the companion ladder, and pitched on deck the 
horsehair bag that contained them, and the ensign was 
aloft in a moment. My familiarity with Drinkwater's " Siege 
of Gibraltar " made the whole scene classic to my mind. 
But the captain, in his good nature, allowed the men to 
purchase private stores of rum ; and, of course, they all got 
dead drunk, so that the ship at anchor was left to the care of 
the mate, myself, and another boy, the only sober creatures 
on board, for the captain was ashore. The men lay sprawling 
half on deck, half in the forecastle ; one of them was so mad 
that he went to hit another man for some fancied offence, 
but rinding that he had struck the boy Bill (myself to wit) 
he was so vexed that he flung himself overboard, and, had 
not the mate jumped into a boat alongside and caught hold 
of him, he would certainly have been drowned. 

At Tarragona the men bought buckets full of the cheap, 
black Catalonian wine, and sitting round the bucket, bailed 
out the wine and drank it from the cans in which they 
cooked their tea and sugar on the cook-house fire until it 
was black and bitter. At one of these carouses, from which 
I always withdrew in disgust, they called on me, lying in 
my hammock, to have some, but getting nothing but silence 
in reply, they poured a can of it over me. It was simply fun. 
Lumpy as I then was, and was called, I got drowsy in 
the night watches, and acquired the habit of walking the 
deck fast asleep. This was a serious habit, especially when 
having the look out for ships approaching, and it was 
necessary to cure me of it I walked the gangway 
steadily with folded arms, and turned without touching 
any fixtures as when awake ; but if anyone stood in my 
way there was a collision. Sometimes a noose was put 
to catch my leg, and down I came on my nose. Tar was 


1 8 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

put in my mouth, and the burning substance so roused me 
that I seized a capstan bar to knock the offender down. 
Finally, they pitched whole buckets of water on me from 
the rigging, and shouted, " A man overboard "; and this 
kept me wakeful for some time to come. 

The Spaniards who came on board used to take to me 
as being a Catholic, which I was rather fond of letting 
them know. Whenever a group of monks or friars, in their 
big hats and long costumes, appeared on the shore, the 
sailors had a laugh and rough joke at my expense. At 
Barcelona, the two Custom House officers placed on board 
to prevent smuggling compassionated me in their hearts 
as a Catholic boy among heretics. They were overheard 
planning a scheme to get me ashore out of their hands. 
The captain gave me sundry hints and threats which I 
could not understand. But many years afterwards when I 
met him, after I was a priest, he told me of this plot, and 
how anxious it had made him, feeling his responsibility to 
my parents. 

The walls and bastions of Tarragona were still in a 
ruinous condition from the two assaults they had under- 
gone in the Peninsular War, the French first taking the 
city and the English retaking it. Our captain, who had 
commanded a transport in that service, explained to me 
the English attack, of which he had been an eye-witness. 
The English approach was by a long viaduct spanning a 
broad valley. The Cathedral, with its cloisters and semi- 
nary, first revealed to my sight a great Catholic church with 
all its appointments, and enabled me to realise what York 
Minster once had been. Travelling, much later in life, 
with a venerable Spanish bishop, on comparing notes I 
found that he had been a student in that seminary at the 
very time that I was cabin boy in the harbour. How often 
do these encounters in after life quicken the memories of 
the past ! 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 19 

Reaching the Bay of Leghorn from Gibraltar, in this 
first voyage, the quarantine doctor came alongside, and 
decreed that as it was reported that the yellow fever was at 
Gibraltar, we must have forty days' quarantine, of which 
twenty at least must be passed at anchor in the open bay. 
This was a matter of unexpected consternation, for there 
was no fever at Gibraltar, and, besides the loss of time and 
consequent expenses, the bay was insecure and open to 
heavy gales. So the yellow flag was hoisted, our letters 
sliced, vinegared, and fumigated, and all communication 
with the shore, except by long poles with the boats 
bringing provisions, cut off. We rode out our twenty days 
at anchor in idleness, except setting up the rigging and 
doing odd jobs, and then came the doctor again. We had 
all to stand in a row and be inspected from his boat, and 
then to jump up and down to show our healthy condition. 
He then came on board and felt everyone under the arm- 
pits, after which he declared that we could enter the harbour, 
but must remain in quarantine for twenty days more. It 
was an awful day of rain and tempest when we hove anchor, 
a cold piercing tramontana, that searched into every bone ; 
and all the long day we toiled, beating against the wind, to 
gain the harbour. I shall never forget how desolate we 
were, wet to the skin and chilled to the spine. When we 
got into our berth at last, we were hemmed in by an 
Algerine on one side and a Greek on the other. Our men, 
unaccustomed to the Mediterranean, had strong superstitions 
about the Algerines, taking them for pirates ; and the long 
robes of the captain, his white turban and long cherry stick 
pipe reaching to the deck, gave him a solemn appearance, 
whilst his men looked a truculent crew. On the other 
hand, they were puzzled with the enormous baggy 
costume of the Greeks, who surprised them not less by their 
agility. The Algerines rushed over the side; it was simply 
to suspend a defensive beam to prevent the ships crushing, 

20 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

but so alarmed were our men that they determined to keep 
watch with handspikes over their shoulders. However, 
they soon got friendly with their neighbours. 

For me, it was just that touch of romance which I en- 
joyed. The calm of the port, the change of those icy cold 
garments for dry ones, gave me a sense of Elysian en- 
joyment such as I never experienced before or since. I 
walked the deck with the new sights and sounds about me 
and a sense of revivification within me that approached 
to rapture. Our prime amusement during this tedious 
quarantine was the music-boats that played and sang around 
us. Among other compositions, we constantly heard 
Rossini's Fra tanti palpiti, which at that time excited a 
furore in Italy. 

My ears had been attuned to music from childhood, for 
not only did my father play the flute and flageolet, but my 
brothers and sisters cultivated various instruments as well- 
as singing, and formed the choir in the chapel. My father 
also amused himself with engraving plates and etching, so 
that our artistic tastes got a certain encouragement. Yet 
in Leghorn I found nothing to gratify mine except the well- 
known statue of the Grand Duke Ferdinand, with the four 
bronze figures of Algerines chained at his feet, about which 
the sailors had many legends. 

Our passage home was beset with storms and contrary 
winds that delayed us six weeks between Gibraltar and 
Portsmouth. In the Bay of Biscay our fresh water had 
turned putrid, and its stench was horrible ; our bread was 
filled with cobwebs and maggots ; our beef (consisting of 
condemned stores from Gibraltar, which was all that was 
left), was, on the outside, like mahogany, though the inside 
was green : and the men cut it into snuff-boxes, like any 
other timber, as curiosities. It had probably been ten or 
twelve years packed in salt brine, and buried in vaults of 
the commissariat, should it be needed for another siege 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 21 

Our first news from the English pilots was that George 
III. was dead, the Duke of Berri was assassinated, and 
the English coast lined with wrecks from the terrible gales 
we had encountered. This last news made us grateful that 
we had not reached the English coast earlier, notwith- 
standing our short allowance of rations and their detestable 
quality. How eager we were to get some fresh water after 
we had rounded the Isle of Wight to the quarantine 
grounds, and with what glee the men hoisted the first 
quarter of fresh beef on board ! Our long delay and the 
extraordinary number of wrecks had made our friends 
anxious about our safety. My father happened to be in 
the commercial room of a hotel in Hull, when a person 
came in and announced that the Leghorn was lost with all 
hands. He called for his horse, rode forty miles to Scar- 
borough scarcely knowing what he did ; but had the 
discretion when he got home to say nothing of what he 
had heard. In a day or two after the news reached him 
of our safe arrival off Portsmouth. 

After discharging our cargo at Hull we took horses on 
board for St. Petersburg. ^In our first voyage to the 
Baltic, when anchored between Copenhagen and Drago, 
such a heavy gale came on that we had to cut cable, leave 
a buoy over the anchor, and run for the open sea. There 
was a sort of ceremony on this occasion. When all was 
ready the captain himself took the axe and cut the cable. 
But when we got off the Isle of Bornholm the wind in- 
creased to still greater vehemence and a storm of sleet 
drove keenly in our faces. I and another lad were 
ordered aloft to furl the main-top gallant, prior to reefing 
the topsail. But when we got on the yard the folds of 
the sail were so full of sleet, it so cut our faces, blinding our 
eyes, our hands were so benumbed, whilst one of my shoes 
blew off, that we could do nothing except hold on. It 
was a critical moment, for we were on a lee shore without 

22 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

refuge. The curses sent up from deck did not stimulate 
us, so a man of light weight was sent up, and as we got 
down and jumped on deck crack came a rope's end across 
our backs. 

In the same voyage we had to run into one of the 
Swedish Sounds, where, landlocked and in smooth water, 
we had to wait for the subsidence of the gale. Here it 
was my delight to ramble in the valleys gathering bil- 
berries and strawberries, and lying on a green bank to 
listen to the sounds that hummed in the air of insects, 
birds, silvery threads of waterfalls, and the woodman's 
axe. Then the mate would take me with him in the 
jolly-boat with jib and leg of mutton sail, and we 
traversed the transparent water from shore to shore. 
So clear was the water that we saw everything dis- 
tinctly at a great depth on the ground below. We saw 
oyster beds packed like tiles, and countless sea plants in 
great varieties of colour and form ; crabs also, taking their 
lateral walks ; polypi and anemones of brilliant hues, and 
fish pursuing their prey among the plants. The summer 
skies of the Baltic enchanted me more than those of the 
Mediterranean, for I had still much of the poetical element 
in my composition. Elsinore, with its memories of Hamlet; 
Copenhagen, with its islands and floating batteries recalling 
Nelson ; the beautiful landlocked bays of Sweden, into 
which we ran when the storms began to rage ; the short 
and almost nominal nights ; the magnificent sunrises ; 
the passing through the Russian fleet ; the tranquil sail 
up the Gulf of Finland ; Cronstadt, with its even then 
prodigious batteries ; then the Neva, up to the magnifi- 
cent quays of St. Petersburgj glowing with its metal 
domes and spires ; all these scenes worked on my youthful 
imagination like enchantment. The Russian people might 
not be very cleanly, the officials might require a good deal 
of bribing before the ships could get on smoothly ; but the 

Autobiography of Arc/this hop U Hat home. 23 

summer climate, with its changing hues, was fascinating. 
When, at a later period of life, I opened Comte De 
Maistre's " Soirees de St. Pe"tersbourg," his description of 
his own fascination with the summer evenings on the banks 
of the Neva awoke a chord of memory unspeakably 
pleasant. Yet I was then but a cabin boy with my 
thoughts buried under a tarry cap. 

Perhaps the most beautiful scene that I ever saw in 
creation was a sunrise in the 'Baltic. The summer nights 
in that climate were to me enchanting. The sun went 
down with a large glowing disc, and in a couple of hours was 
up again, so that one could read a good print at midnight. 
But on that wonderful morning the sun, as he rose, had 
fairly centred himself in a glowing sphere of amber, ex- 
panding beyond into a rich orange, which passed into 
crimson, and then into purple, covering half the hemisphere 
with these brilliant hues, whilst the opposite half-hemisphere 
was a pale reflection of the same, and the deck was 
chequered with those colours like a stained window. 1 
once, and only once, saw a counterpart to this gorgeous 
spectacle, in a sunset in the tropics. It was on my first 
voyage to Australia. The whole western sky was banked 
up from the horizon with crimson clouds, presenting with 
their shades and salient lights the picture of a lofty moun- 
tain range, with a city piled in pyramidal form, like Algiers 
with its towers and battlemented walls, but all of glowing 
flame intense as a furnace. After a long gaze which seemed 
to subdue and entrance the passengers, the vision slowly 
passed away. 

One of the sights in the Baltic was an extraordinary 
shoal of mackerel. The sea was as smooth as a mirror, 
and there was not a breath of wind. As far as we could 
see, and as deep as we could look down, all was mackerel, 
and there was not a square inch where their bright blue 
and silver backs were not flashing and crossing one beneath 

24 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

another. In vain we tried a variety of schemes, such as 
running lines from the jib-boom to the topsail ; we could 
not catch even one. The mackerel pursues its prey, and 
when running with a rippling breeze of from four to five 
knots an hour, may be caught as fast as the lines with a 
bit of white and red rag can be let down. 

The cooking-house of Cronstadt was an institution worth 
describing. In the ports of the Baltic no fire was allowed 
to be lit in the harbours. For cooking, a great house was 
provided on shore close to the port. In that dingy re- 
ceptacle fireplaces with bars were ranged all round with 
wood fires, amid an atmosphere rich in reek and all kinds 
of culinary odours, blending the tastes of all navigating 
nations. At a certain hour each ship sent its boat, generally 
rowed by a couple of lads, to convey the cook with his 
provisions to the cook-house. It was often my lot to pull 
an oar, and once or twice I did the cooking. What a jabber 
of languages there was, and yet a kind-hearted good fellow- 
ship, however incomplete the modes of expression among 
different nations. Now and then a little surliness, if one 
man trenched on another's bars ; now and then an ex- 
change of sly grogs; but in the main it was a merry, though 
weird, scene. Then, as twelve approached, all the boats 
reassembled to carry off the cooks with the steaming 
products of their labours. I saw, at the landing, a French 
sailor conversing with a Russian, when they found out that 
they had been opposed to each other at the Battle of 
Borodino ; and then how affectionately they hugged each 
other, whilst tears came into the eyes of the soft-hearted 

Then we moved near the famous statue of Peter the 
Great, by the Winter Palace ; and many a legend did I hear 
of his doings, and of the eccentricities of the Emperor Paul, 
whilst I witnessed the worshipful attitude of the people 
towards the Emperor Alexander. 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 2$ 

The churches seemed to me Catholic yet not Catholic, I 
could scarcely tell how : but I was greatly struck with the 
religious customs of the people. They made the sign of 
the Cross on all occasions, commonly repeating it thrice. 
They seldom passed a church without entering, or at least 
uncovering and kneeling before they passed it. Nor was 
this custom limited to the poorer classes. The priests, in 
their beards and Oriental costume, were often striking and 
reverend figures. Even our sailors were impressed by the 
signs of religion which they saw, and spoke of them with 
respect. I remember being in the serfs' Sunday afternoon 
market with some companions, when suddenly a bell rang 
out from one of the churches, and the whole market, trades- 
men included, knelt down in prayer. Whether it was 
something like our Angelus bell I cannot say. Our object 
in the market was to buy pieces of Russian duck or canvas 
with which to make sea clothing with our sail cloth needles. 
We took in a cargo of hemp at Cronstadt, the stowing of 
which by means of jackscrews was the work of the Russian 
serfs, whose brawny limbs were fed on nothing better than 
black bread of a very sour flavour and garlic. But they 
were kept in heart by glasses of fiery " bottery," which it 
was my office to give them at stated hours ; and they 
lightened their heavy labour by improvised chants sung in 
untiring chorus, under a leader, who gave the improvi- 

On returning to London, I made acquaintance with my 
relatives, who were very kind to me, and on alternate Sun- 
days, when I had leave on shore, I went to Mass with 
them at the Chapel of Somers Town.* They took me also, 
as a special treat, to St. Mary's, Moorfields, recently com- 
pleted, and looked upon at that time as a wonderful 

* At the time when William Ullathorne was in the habit of attending 
Mass at the Chapel of Somers Town Margaret Hallahan was an inmate 
the Somers Town Orphanage. 

26 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

advancement in Catholic architecture. It is a fact to be 
avowed that when abroad I had never tried to go to Mass, 
and probably I should not have been permitted to go alone. 
Yet I always stuck to the confession of my Catholicity and 
was proud of it. 

The shipping trade was now slack, and a charter could 
not be got on 'Change for a new voyage. So the captain, 
who was part owner, resolved to put our beautiful brig for 
a time in the Newcastle and London coal trade. He would 
not, however, have anything personally to do with this 
dirty work, but stopped in London with his kind-hearted 
wife, and put in his place a coarse, rough Newcastle skipper, 
and under this ignorant man my fortunes were changed. 
We made a couple of voyages in this black trade, and 
everyone cried out against the degradation of so fine a 
craft ; but there was no remedy. What I vividly remember 
is, that when in harbour two of us boys had to land this 
captain (no better than a common sailor) each evening, that 
he might have his carouse with other coal skippers of the 
same class, whilst we poor boys had to guard the boat no 
trifling thing on the Thames where the wherry-men, jealous 
of ship's boats, would not let us lie near the stairs, but 
compelled us to keep afloat in the tide, or to fasten on to 
some moored lighter for long hours. At last the skipper 
appeared with his fellow-skippers. Our boat had to carry 
them all to the smart ship, where they came for another 
glass ; and then we had to row the visitors, half drunk, to 
their own ships, getting nothing but abuse from them, and 
got back to bed between twelve and one in the morning. 

I had two narrow escapes of drowning in the Thames. 
Another lad, knowing I had a constitutional fear of dogs, 
set one upon me by way of a joke. I sprang from the 
bulwark of our own vessel to the loftier side of the next 
in the tier, calculating on catching on a moulding with my 
fingers, and so scrambling on board ; but forgot at the 

Autobiography of ArcJibishop UllatJiorne. 27 

moment that her sides had been newly tarred and var- 
nished, so down I slipped between the two ships and sank 
beneath them. I could not swim, but being perfectly calm 
and self-possessed I paddled myself up with hands and 
feet. Alarm was given, the men sprang out of the hold 
where they were at work, and one of them seized me by 
the head from the fore chains just as I emerged. It was 
considered a great escape, as few who sank in the tideway 
were ever saved. The other case was in running down the 
Thames with wind and tide, having to get on board from 
a boat that hung by its painter. I seized the chain plates 
and the boat went from under me. I could not swing 
myself up, and was too proud to call out ; but a voice 
from another ship cried out : " Captain Wrougham, that 
boy will be drowned there, under the main chains." This 
brought a pair of hands down on my collar and a fair share 
of abuse on my person. 

Being in the Thames after our second trip to Newcastle 
the skipper one day got very angry with me, owing to a 
trifling mistake, and gave me a kick with his foot that 
wounded my pride to such a degree that I determined to 
abandon the ship. That night, accordingly, I packed up 
my bundle of linen, put on my best clothes, and sat all night 
in the cook-house on deck. I confided my secret to another 
youth, a respectable boy, who had been my schoolfellow, 
who faithfully kept it. About eleven some of our men 
came from the shore half tipsy, and one of them came into 
the cook-house for something he wanted ; but as I sat 
low down on a bucket in the corner I escaped detection. 
About two o'clock in the morning I scrambled across the 
tier of ships in which we lay, got down into a lighter, and 
hailed a wherry at the landing. The man came and sus- 
pected me to be a runaway. We had a parley, and half-a- 
crown induced him to land me. I wandered about the 
streets of London, gradually working my way towards the 

28 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 

West End ; answered the policemen and patrols, who were 
suspicious of my bundle, in broad Yorkshire, as a simple 
country lad going to see my relations ; received cautions in 
a kindly tone about not letting anyone carry my bundle, 
and in due time knocked at the door of one of my uncles, 
who heard my tale, gave me breakfast, and then took me 
to other relatives, three of whom agreed to drive me down 
again to the ship, and there have an interview with the 
captain. My appearance thus accompanied produced a 
great sensation. It was thought on board that I must have 
been drowned. The skipper was nonplussed and had 
very little to say, but referred my friends to the real captain, 
who lived atsome distance. We went to Captain Wrougham, 
who, as usual, was very kind. He admitted the coarseness 
of the man in command, and proposed that I should go to 
my friends for the winter, and should rejoin the ship in the 
spring, when he hoped to resume command and enter once 
more on foreign trade. I enjoyed the spectacles of London 
for a time and then returned home. But our ship was at 
Scarborough before me. The other owners were dissatisfied 
with what the ship was doing and sent a special agent to 
bring her home. They agreed with my father to give up 
my indentures and I was free. Though always admired, 
the Leghorn was never prosperous ; she was sold, and 
finally sank in the Bay of Genoa. 

In vain did my parents try to persuade me to give up 
the sea. I had not much taste for ship work, nor did I like 
the rude society into which I was thrown ; but I was fond 
of roaming to see the world, and was too proud to swallow 
the handspike. I had seen schoolfellows jeered at for 
deserting a pursuit supposed to have perils in it, and 
demanding a hardy disposition, and I believe that this 
opinion keeps many a youth at sea after he has had a 
sickening of it. 

I spent the winter in studying the science of navigation 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathonu. 29 

under an old sea captain, who had Nome's " Epitome " off 
by memory, the table of logarithms included. He was 
clever, and had some half-dozen pupils, much older than 
myself. It was a strange sort of school ; the old man kept 
no servant, cooked his own food, sometimes got tipsy, and 
then there was a fencing match between him and one of 
the students with two-foot scales. I learnt to work a ship's 
way, to keep a log book, and to take observations of the 
sun, which we did with our sextants in fine weather on 
Castle Hill. 

In the spring I set sail once more. There was an 
excellent old couple of an old Catholic family residing 
at Scarborough, who had a brig called the Anne's Reso- 
lution. To this vessel, which was very inferior to the 
Leghorn, I was apprenticed for a short term, not alto- 
gether to my liking. I wanted to go in one of the Arctic 
discovery ships, or where I might see more adventures, but 
my father wished to sicken me of the sea. The captain 
was a good-natured man of ordinary abilities ; the mate, 
who had been for a time at Stonyhurst and was full of 
Catholic faith, was a nephew of the owners, and bore their 
name. I had stipulated not to go again as cabin boy, but 
this threw me into the forecastle, among a set of men and 
boys whose conversation was the vilest imaginable. This 
did not at all suit my taste, for I always kept a certain self- 
respect. But after a time the captain became indisposed, 
and required more attention than, with the present boy, he 
could get. He therefore asked me as a favour to act as 
cabin boy. This touched my feelings and I consented. 
It had the further advantage of taking me out of the 

There was another youth on board, older than myself, 
who was not only steady, but very anxious to improve 
himself. This led to a certain intimacy between us. But 
we got into one or two scrapes together. With my vivid 

3O Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathornc. 

imagination I was passionately fond of the theatre, but 
always kept away from low exhibitions. When in the 
London Docks, and we had leave on shore in the evening, 
I induced him more than once to accompany me to Covent 
Garden ; and when the play was over we wandered through 
the streets until six in the morning, when the dock gates 
were opened, and then we slipped on board before all hands 
were called. One morning, however, the mate appeared on 
deck before we returned, which put an end to our theatrical 
enjoyments. In these nightly wanderings we made it a 
rule to keep to the main streets, to enter no place of re- 
freshment, and speak to no one. 

Whilst in the docks I got a severe scald through upsetting 
some burning fat on my right instep, and being neglected 
gangrene appeared. The doctor who was called in declared 
that it was a hospital case and serious ; I was therefore 
conveyed up to my Uncle Longstaff's, who then resided in 
the Polygon, Somers Town. Through the affectionate care 
of my aunt and the skill of the family doctor my foot was 
saved, and in due time I returned to the ship. I was one 
day engaged in tarring a cable, when I suddenly heard my 
father's voice from the quay saying : " I see his eyes, but 
nothing else of him." I looked up and there I saw my 
father and uncle gazing at me. My father looked anything 
but contented, and coming on board said : " Do you mean 
to say that you like this ? " However, I held on until we 
got to Memel, and there I found my deliverance. 

When Sunday morning came in the harbour, Mr. Cray- 
thorne, the mate, said to me: "William, let us go to 
Mass." I fished up the " Garden of the Soul " from the bottom 
of my sea chest, and we set off through the flat town of 
Memel, with its numerous windmills for sawing timber, and 
its churches in the hands of the Lutherans, until beyond 
the town we reached a considerable wooden structure 
exteriorly not unlike a barn. There was a square yard of 

Autobiography of Archbishop VllatJionic. 31 

grass in front of it, surrounded by a low wall, and on one 
side the walk to the door was a mound surmounted by a 
large wooden figure on a cross, round the front of which sat 
a number of aged and decrepit people singing and soliciting 
alms. The Mass had begun when we entered the chapel, 
the sanctuary was profusely decorated with flowers, and 
two banners were planted on the sanctuary rails, one of 
which, I recollect, represented St. Michael the Archangel. 
I vividly remember the broad figure of the venerable priest 
and his large tonsure, which made me think him a Fran- 
ciscan. The men knelt on the right side, the women on 
the left, all dressed very plainly and much alike. With 
their hands united and their eyes recollected, they were 
singing the Litany of Loretto to two or three simple 
notes, accompanied by an instrument like the sound 
of small bells. The moment 1 entered I was struck by 
the simple fervour of the scene ; it threw me into a cold 
shiver, my heart was turned inward upon myself, I saw the 
claims of God upon me, and felt a deep reproach within 
my soul. When we came out I was again struck by the 
affectionate way in which the people saluted each other, as 
if they were all one family. Whatever money was in my 
pocket went into the poor box, and when we got on board 
I asked Craythorne what religious books he had with him. 
He produced an English translation of Marsollier's " Life of 
St. Jane Chantal," and Gobinet's " Instruction of Youth, 
which I read as leisure served. 

The venerable figure of St. Francis de Sales and that of 
St. Jane Chantal introduced me to a new world, of which 1 
had hitherto known nothing. A life filled with the sense 
of God and devoted to God was what I had never realised. 
Gobinet's "Instructions" again took me into my conscience. 
Still there was much fancy in me, and I lived in a sort of 
rapture of the imagination until we reached London. I 
then wrote home and informed my parents that I wished 

32 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

to leave the sea and return home. This was speedily 
arranged, and I was again employed in my father's business. 
My dear mother, however, unacquainted with the change 
that had taken place in me, wrote to me before I left the 
ship, expressing a hope that I should give no more trouble 
to them than the rest of the family. I cannot remember 
how it was, but though there was then a young priest 
resident at Scarborough, to whom I went, and under whom, 
at his request, I resumed the catechism, I did not at that 
time make my first Communion. I took evening lessons 
in French with Mr. Pexton, already named, and in walks 
with him he interested me in college life and studies ; and 
\ renewed my old habit of general reading. But in the 
midst of this course of life we happened to receive a visit 
from a linen manufacturer of Knaresborough, who had a 
son studying for the Church, at the Benedictine Priory of 
Downside. He took a fancy to my brother James, who 
had a fine boy's voice, and was a principal singer at the 
chapel. He pressed him to go to Downside as a Church 
student, and spoke warmly about it to my parents. But 
my brother did not feel the attraction. Whereupon I 
acknowledged how much I should like it, and made known 
the altered state of my mind. My father wrote at once to 
Dr. Barber, the Prior, and the matter was settled to my 
great delight. As Downside is near Bath, I preferred going 
by London on board a packet sloop. But whilst anchored 
at the mouth of the Thames we were caught in a severe 
January gale, and had to cut and run with about fifty sail 
more of whom one, a Dutchman, went down and got 
safe into Harwich, where, in consequence of floating ice in 
the Thames, I did not delay, but went on by coach, and 
arrived at Downside in the beginning of February, 1823, 
being nearly seventeen years old. 

The College, as well as Priory, were then packed in the 
old mansion, with considerable contrivance ; but the new 

Autobiography of Arclibishop Ullathorne. 33 

College and chapel were in course of preparation. I made 
the twentieth boy in the school. The first thing that struck 
me was the good feeling and piety which prevailed among 
the boys, and the kindly relations which existed between 
them and their masters. The whole tone of things was in 
great contrast to all I had ever known, and threw a light 
into my mind as to the practical bearing of the Catholic 
religion. The next thing that struck me was the absence 
of worldly knowledge and experience in the Superiors, as 
well as in the monks, who nevertheless, by their great 
dignity, piety, and kindness at once attracted my reverence 
and veneration. It revealed to me a world in utter con- 
trast to the world I had known before. 



ARRIVED at St. Gregory's Priory, Downside, my life 
underwent a total and very earnest change. In these 
days it will scarcely be believed that until I went to St. 
Gregory's I had never been present at Benediction of the 
Blessed Sacrament, or heard the Litany sung, except at 
Memel, but it now came with great sweetness to my soul 
Such devotions in those days were chiefly limited to the few 
existing colleges and convents. Father Folding, afterwards 
the first Archbishop of Sydney, was our prefect and our 
director, and in him I found all that my soul needed.* To 
him I made my general confession, and he kept me long in 
training, for it was not until Christmas night, 1823,! ten 

* In the dedication to a volume of sermons, published in 1842, Dr. 
Ullathorne thus expresses his obligations to his holy director : "You 
were my first, my constant, and my best instructor in the spirit of the 
religious life. It was you who early inspired me with that missionary 
spirit which counts self as nothing in pursuit of the salvation of im- 
mortal souls. And as I was brought up at your feet, so have I since 
been privileged to walk by your side in the Apostolic career, and to 
be guided by your light." 

fA letter is preserved, dated Downside, January 7th, 1824, in 
which the writer, addressing his parents, informs them of this event. 
" I had the inexpressible happiness," he says, "of approaching Holy 
Communion for the first time on Christmas Day, and promised now to 
begin in earnest and serve God with all my heart, which, indeed, is a 
very poor return for all the mercies and blessings which He has vouch- 
safed to grant to such an unworthy being as myself. And now, my 
dear parents, I feel as if I were entering on a new being, so much 
happier am I than during my former course of life. . . . Much yet 
remains to be done ; and now I ^humbly and sincerely, and from my 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 35 

months after my arrival, that I made my first Communion. 
I had now two things to look after, my studies and my 
soul, and in both had everything to make up ; for I had 
never understood before either in what real study consisted, 
or how the soul could be advanced towards divine things. 
I began the first with the Latin grammar and elementary 
books, and the structure of language dawned upon me as a 
beautiful thing and one of deep interest. For in my earlier 
days syntax was a locked up mystery for want of a proper 
teacher to draw its principles into application. I soon 
began other languages, for which I had a natural facility, 
and my private time was mainly given to history. 

I was pushed up much too rapidly through the school, 
and consequently did not get my fair share of scholarship, 
even as it was then understood in our colleges. I got no 
Greek, but picked up the rudiments later on in teaching a 
class of beginners. I was passed on from class to class at 
each bi-monthly examination, so that in the course of 
twelve months I had gone through all the classes and 
stood by the side of those who had been studying for six 
or seven years. It is true I had a method of my own, 
which gave me more of the book than they who had 
completed their year in it ; but that was unknown to the 
masters. I first got up the lessons of the day as com- 
pletely as I could, dodging the dictionary through all the 
roots and compounds of the words, and then went on in the 
book for the remainder of the time, so that I was soon 
ahead of the class by some hundreds of pages, yet had 
scarcely ever a mark against me. Then I made it a point 
of honour never to revise for examinations, having a 

heart, ask your pardon for all the uneasiness, troubles, and disquietudes 
which I have caused you, which I hope you will grant through the 
love you bear our Blessed Lord, and through the goodness of your 
own hearts. I must also ask pardon of my brothers, for all the 
scandal which I have given them, when I ought to have set them a 
good example." 

36 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

detestation of secondary motives as something mean, but 
went on pursuing further studies. Yet the result was my 
transfer to a higher class. But I have always regretted 
this rapidity, which was beyond my own control ; for 
though I have read most things privately, I have know- 
ledge without due scholarship. 

On the following Feast of the Epiphany I became a 
postulant together with four fellow-students. But the 
postulancy was managed in a peculiar way. We still re- 
mained in the school and its dormitory as usual, but were 
called up at five instead of six to attend Matins and 
Lauds, and Meditation with the monks in choir. This 
was the only thing that distinguished us from the other 
lay students. We received the religious habit on March 
1 2th, 1824, little more than a year after I had entered 
the school. Although the taking the habit was made a 
great ceremony, and Dr. Barber, the Prior, read us one of 
his beautiful discourses, yet, owing to the times, it was 
performed in a very primitive way. A small scapular was 
placed over our ordinary lay dress, to be worn underneath, 
and a large choir habit, kept for such occasions, was laid 
upon the shoulders of each one, but kept to cover only the 
last of the candidates. 

During the novitiate we wore out our old coloured 
clothes under an ordinary college gown, open in front, 
and a trencher cap. Our master was a man of a warm 
and tender heart, with true religious instincts, who 
formed our souls to detachment and the spirit of the 
Benedictine Rule with unction and genuine solicitude. We 
were devotedly attached to him and affectionately united 
with each other. After the duties of choir our morn- 
ings were given to the study of the Rule, committing the 
ascetic chapters to memory. As breakfast was not a con- 
ventual meal, we daily asked for it on our knees, and before 
it was granted the chapter of faults was held, followed by 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 37 

such admonitions and instructions as might forward us in 
discipline. We then continued our classical studies for a 
considerable part of the day. Our master thought it well 
to exercise our memories, and therefore we had to commit 
to memory the Sixth Book of Virgil, the " Ars Poetica " of 
Horace, Pope's " Essay on Man," and various other com- 

Whilst still in the school as a lay student, I had taken 
the " Spiritual Combat " as a text-book, and had made it a 
special study, applying its principles as well as its exposi- 
tion of the soul's faculties and their use to my own case, 
and rinding more systematic help in it than in any other 
book. And I have never ceased to recommend it as the 
most valuable of books for postulants when used as a text- 
book. Not only because it is so clear on the difference 
between the Spirit of God in man and the spirit of the 
world, but also for the help it affords to self-knowledge 
and self-conquest. It is exactly the book to lay the founda- 
tion on which to place the Religious Rule. To this book 
of principles were added the Lives of the Saints, and 
especially of the Fathers of the Desert, in whom the 
spiritual combat was most completely illustrated. 

To return to the novitiate. Our work was not all study, 
manual labour was sometimes added in the old Benedic- 
tine spirit ; and there can be no doubt that the man who 
can handle a spade, or do some mechanical work, will have 
more practical sense than he who can only handle books, 
not to speak of this veritable association with our poorer 
brethren. Penances, those true searchers into nature, were 
sometimes rather eccentric in their character, as more 
effectually probing and bringing to the surface those 
things hidden to oneself, but needing to be known and 
corrected. Thus, after the time of meditation, a novice 
would now and then be called upon to write down what he 
had thought of, with all its wanderings and distractions, 

38 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 

which gave the Novice-master the opportunity of teaching 
the just and right use of the faculties in that spiritual 
exercise. Our chief text-book for the religious spirit was 
the " Practice of Religious Perfection," by Rodriguez ; to 
which the master added instructions drawn from the Rule 
of St. Benedict. Here let me remark that however great 
is the value of Rodriguez, it ought to be adapted in a 
special edition for the use of Religious women. For there 
are certain points in it that only regard the Society for 
which it was written, and which are apt to mislead those 
numerous institutes of Religious women to whom they are 
not applicable.* 

What took most hold of me, as an idea at least, was the 
whole doctrine of Christian and Religious humility ; and 
the example of the Fathers of the Desert had a still greater 
charm, at least for my imagination. This, however, intro- 
duced a disturbing influence, which set me a day dreaming 
and so unsettled me. Abbot de Ranee's book on " Monastic 
Life," his life and the four volumes recording the lives and 
deaths of the first members of his reformed monastery, took 
hold of me and linked themselves in my mind with St 
Bernard, whom I had taken as my patron Saint, and with 
his reform of the Benedictine Order. All this combined 
with the impression made on me by the Lives of the Fathers 
in the Desert, as drawn up by Bishop Challoner, had 
become to me what fiction had been to my earlier years 
a grand, romantic, spiritual ideal, to be somehow realised 
and acted upon. I earnestly entreated my Superiors to 
allow me to go to La Trappe, there to live a penitential life, 
buried from and forgotten by the world. A visit from Mr. 
Walmesley, an English gentleman/skilled in medicine, who 
was a lay brother of that monastery, only increased my 

* As, e.g.) the chapter on " Manifestation of Conscience," which the 
Archbishop never allowed to be used in the novitiates of convents of 
women subject to him. 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 39 

desire. My Superiors tried to divert me from it, yet in the 
kindest and most considerate way. Yet the notion acted 
upon me in a way that for a time overpowered my fondness 
for intellectual pursuits, for which I more than once got a 
smart rebuke. When it came to the question of profession, 
I opened my mind anew to the Novice-master on the 
subject. He asked my leave to consult with the Prior. 
The result of their conference was to express to me their 
sincere apprehension of there being something of imagi- 
nation in what I contemplated, and their fear that if I went 
to La Trappe I should most likely fail, in which case 1 
should probably lose my vocation and return to the world. 
I was therefore advised to make my profession as an Anglo- 
Benedictine, upon the understanding that, if after a period 
of two years I was still of the same mind, putting aside the 
thought in the interval, they would offer no further objec- 
tions to my going to La Trappe. On this advice I acted ; 
nor did I doubt, in later years, as I have known in similar 
instances, that all was a delusion. It left me, however, a 
valuable experience for the future guidance of souls. 

Our novitiate was a happy one ; our numbers had been 
doubled during its course, and, isolated as we were from 
the professed Community, on whom we looked with great 
respect, as well as from the school, we were closely united 
with each other. We observed the rule of silence strictly, 
and even if one of us glanced through the windows by way 
of curiosity it was made the subject of self-accusation at 
next morning's chapter. The evening recreation became a 
valuable influence, and from time to time our master pointed 
out some incident, religious event, or pious history in an 
easy way, and turned it to useful instruction. Seldom did 
a priest visit the house from the mission but we heard 
something edifying about him or his work, and the occasion 
was taken for inculcating the true missionary spirit. That 
life, however, he used to tell us, was only for us, if called 

4O Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

on by the President-General to enter upon it ; our real 
business there was to make ourselves good monks, and to 
leave our future disposal in the hands of God, Who would 
manifest His will through the voice of Superiors. This 
solid principle also was carefully enlarged upon, that the 
care of souls was an office so far beyond human powers 
that nothing could make it safe or effective but the grace 
attached to obedience ; that it was essentially what the 
Divine Revelation declared it to be, a mission ; and that 
mission consisted, not in selecting for ourselves, but in 
being sent by authority. 

Four of us who had entered the novitiate together made 
our profession on Easter Tuesday, April Qth, 1825. It was a 
time of unusual fervour, as well in special preparation 
as in that greatest oblation to God of which man is 
capable. As I am in part recording the customs of those 
days in which the Catholic Church in England was first 
beginning to emerge into freedom, after its long state of 
obscurity, I may mention that our change of costume 
consisted in nothing more than a change from the old 
brown or blue clothes to what was then considered clerical 
costume, to wit, a black-tailed coat, shorts with gaiters, and 
a white limp cravat; and in the monastery a soutane, a 
college gown, and cap. For it was still a long time before 
it was considered prudent to adopt the religious habit. 
Father Folding still continued in the office of Novice- 
master, and we, as junior professed, remained under his 
paternal care. He still directed our studies, and under him 
we studied Rhetoric, Logic, and Mental Philosophy. During 
the year of Rhetoric our text-books were Cicero and a 
manuscript by Eustace, the author of the "Classical Tour in 
Italy," who was first a student and then professor of the 
Priory when at Douay, though never a monk ; Quinctilian 
and parts of Longinus ; whilst for private reading we had 
Blair, Rollin on " Sacred Eloquence," and Campbell's 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 41 

" Philosophy of Rhetoric." But for my part I read every- 
thing the library could produce. A little debating society 
was also got up later on, which some of the older monks 
joined ; and thus one began to gain the habit of thinking 
on one's legs before an audience. Privately, I felt the need 
also of a certain physical training ; for though no longer 
heavy and clumsy as in my sea-going days, because study 
had reduced my system, yet I was stronger on the left than 
on the right side, and had a lisp in my voice. I therefore 
took to Austin's " Cheiromonia," and with the aid of dumb- 
bells trained myself to freedom and ease of action until it 
became natural to me. I stood for hours together, at my 
studies, on the right leg to gain power over it; and, to cure 
the lisp and get clear open utterance I repeated com- 
positions walking up hill and with pebbles in my mouth, 
when I had opportunities of doing so unobserved. We 
also paid particular attention to pronunciation, making it a 
rule to correct each other, and keeping " Walker's Dic- 
tionary" on the table for an authoritative appeal. And 
here let me express my surprise that so little has ever 
been done in the training of our clergy, to cultivate clear 
and effective reading for Church use. 

About this time I took up St. Augustine's "Confessions " 
as a spiritual manual, which, next to the sacred Scriptures, 
is the book of greatest profundity, whether as regards the 
knowledge of God or of the divine operations in the human 
soul ; no book ever opened my intelligence so much by 
setting before me the principles upon which human life 
should move. It is a book for the heart quite as much as 
for the mind, and reveals to us the divine operations of 
grace in its conflicts with nature with wonderful clearness. 
There is much truth in the remark that St. Augustine 
formed the religious intellect of Europe. 

From Rhetoric, after an elementary course of Physics, we 
passed to Logic. Our text-books were Watts and the 

42 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

" Port Royal Logic," after which we took up the Scholastic 
Logic in another manuscript treatise by Eustace. Here I 
found a study completely to my taste, for few things have 
fascinated me more than the analysis of mental operations 
and the study of the mental and moral faculties. I there- 
fore found myself in a field of predilection when we passed 
to the study of mental and moral philosophy. Father 
Folding himself was an extensive reader and large thinker 
on these topics, and made the subject attractive. He first 
opened our minds with Reid and other Scotch philosophers, 
and after thus interesting us in philosophic thought, especi- 
ally in the beautiful style of Reid and Beattie, passed us 
on to the Catholic philosophy. All the chief systems were 
analysed excepting those of Germany, which, at that time, 
were scarcely known in England. We were then set to 
analyse Hume, Berkeley, Locke, and Hartley, and to write 
essays upon them. Then we were introduced to Natural 
Religion, which brought me into contact with the " Pensees 
de Paschal," Paley, and the large works of Bergier and 
Bishop Butler. In private time I analysed and annotated 
most of these books on paper, and, which I afterwards 
regretted, burned a great pile of these papers before going 
to Australia. 

Nor was the study of the Scriptures neglected. These 
occupied the Sundays, festivals, and an hour each evening. 
Besides the "Prolegomena," we studied the Psalms, with the 
help of Menochius, Bossuet, and South, and after studying 
one day wrote notes the next. We committed the Gospels 
of the Sundays to memory, and afterwards all the Epistles 
of St. Paul, except the one to the Hebrews, and studied a 
commentary on them. I never regretted the learning St. 
Paul's Epistles by heart in the Douay version. This exer- 
cise became invaluable to me as a preacher, though it gave 
me an involved style, which it took me years to shake off. 
I found South of great assistance in comprehending the 

Autobiography of Archbishop UllatJwrne. 43 

style of the Old Testament, and a few lessons in Hebrew, 
which I privately obtained at Scarborough from a Jewish 
Rabbi, gave me an insight into the structure of that 

Our Professor of Theology had no taste for Philosophy 
beyond the Scholastic Logic. He caught me one day in the 
library reading Smith's " Theory of Moral Sentiments," 
with " Coghlan on the Passions " lying by my side. " What 
are you reading ? " he asked. I told him. " There is no 
theory of morals," he said. " No," I replied, " but there 
Jiave been many ; and in its nature it is a system." Com- 
prehending the significance of my "have been" he let me 
read on.* It became a habit with me to trace everything 
I could to its origin and principles. I endeavoured to 
think by principles, and the habit made me laconic in 
speech, for my style was a reflex of what was going on in 
my mind, and made me sometimes a puzzle to those to 
whom I spoke. One good confrere hit me with Horace's 
" brevis essc laboro, obscure fio " " In trying to be brief 
you grow obscure." And I sometimes heard my old nick- 
name amplified into " Old Plato." I believe I was more or 
less a puzzle to Superiors as well as to brethren, and was 
left to do much after my own way. Thus I got into a 
habit of constant reading with very little relaxation ; and 
excessive reading overlays solid mental, as well as moral, 
discipline. I read far into the night, beyond the time for 

* The obscurity of the above passage is thus explained by a learned 
friend to whom it was submitted. " In this passage reference appears 
to be made to the distinction drawn by St. Augustine (' De Civit. 
Dei,' 1. 19, n. i) between the moral systems of philosophers 'empty 
dreams ' he calls them * and the hope which God gives to us, and the 
substantial fulfilment of it which He will give us as our blessedness.' 
The word ' theory ' is used in that loose sense so common in English 
writers, which takes it as equivalent to hypothesis, and hypothesis for 
conjecture. In this sense we have no 'theory of morals' ; yet 'in its 
nature it is a system,' for it essentially implies subordination according 
to a distinct method whatever method be adopted or principle of 
subordination assumed." 

44 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 

extinguishing lights, and consequently was often found 
wanting in choir when Matins had begun. Nor was this 
noticed, as it ought to have been, until at last I went to 
the Prior, acknowledged my fault, and offered to submit to 
whatever correction he thought best. After which I re- 
ceived a public rebuke.* 

There is a certain class of persons in colleges and monas- 
teries who, having a degree of intelligence and love of 
study, are more occupied within themselves than outwardly 
demonstrative, and who look more singular than they 
really, in their hearts, wish to be. Not being altogether 
comprehended, they are apt to be left too much to them- 
selves, so far as is consistent with ordinary observance. 
Such persons require to be drawn out of themselves, not 
so much by admonition as by the kind and considerate 
converse of Superiors. But even sensible Superiors too 
often refrain from doing this from the mistaken motive 
that they may do more harm than good, although there 
may be stages where it would be so. But, in the main, 
those self-included characters, like ghosts, will speak when 
calmly spoken to. Their hearts want the relief of com- 
muning, and are only in a labyrinth for want of a hand to 
guide them out of it. 

The Sundays and festivals, which were days of Holy 
Communion, were exclusively devoted to spiritual studies 
and the Holy Scriptures. We were accustomed to daily 
self-examination, and always took a chapter of Scripture, 
and another of the " Following of Christ/' before proceeding 
to other spiritual reading ; and towards Holy Scripture I 
had always a special attraction. 

In the beginning of the year 1828 we began our course 

tTo this frank acknowledgment of his fault, it is right to add, on 
the authority of one admitted to his closest confidence, that whenever 
in later years the Bishop visited Downside he always assisted at the 
office in choir as an act of reparation for former negligence. 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathonic. 45 

of Theology. Here, at last, I found a teacher who really 
taught systematically, and not only with method, but with 
considerable preparation and from an extensive accumula- 
tion of knowledge. I have always said that Dr. Brown, 
late Bishop of Newport and Menevia, was the only person 
from whose living voice I ever learnt much. All else was 
acquired chiefly through books. But here I found a 
teacher who spoke from the digested stores of his mind. 
The study of the tract on "Religion and its Evidences" led 
me into a wide course of reading, and into the whole con- 
troversy with the Philosophers of France and England. 
The study of the Divine attributes and of the Holy Trinity 
elevated the mind and laid the deep foundation of all 
Theology. I found it to be the most spiritual of all 
spiritual reading. I may mention, as an instance of my 
method of work, that at a certain stage the professor placed 
in my hands the well-known treatise by Dr. Clarke on the 
Divine attributes. But with all its clearness, I found a 
link wanting in the argument where the transition occurs 
between material and spiritual existence. I referred it to 
the professor, who was equally perplexed. I then beat 
about until at last I found a hint, in the " Dictionnaire Theo- 
logique" of Bergier, that Clarke had drawn his whole 
argument from Tertullian. Referring to that deep thinker 
I found the link that was wanting in his books Contra Her- 
mogenem. The science of the Incarnation gave a unity and 
depth to the sacred Scriptures such as I could not have 
understood before ; whilst the heresies through which that 
science obtained its wonderful development and accuracy 
completely explained the good which God brings out of 
the conflict between light and darkness. The previous 
learning of St. Paul's Epistles was a good preparation for 
the treatise on Grace, for which we had an excellent text 
book abridged from Tournely. But I also read some of 
St. Augustine's treatises against the Pelagians, which were 

46 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

chiefly enucleations of St. Paul, whose Epistles after that 
became a new book to me. 

With respect to the treatise on the Church, I must 
admit that our professor was inclined, by his studies, to 
Gallicanism, and hence we had a good deal of Tournely 
and De la Hogue. This, however, did not altogether 
satisfy my mind, nor was it the view taken by Dr. 
Barber, our Prior, who had been trained by Dr. Eloy, a 
distinguished Doctor of the Sorbonne, who was first of his 
licence in that University, and whose views were altogether 
ultramontane. I consequently took up De Maistre's book, 
and Gallicanism was gradually cleared out of my mind. 
This reminds me to state, before I forget, that at the 
Council of the Vatican the public press completely mis- 
represented the line which I took on the discussion of the 
question of the Papal Infallibility. I was represented as 
taking a middle course. It was nothing of the kind. As 
a matter of fact, I never opened my lips on that question. 
It is true that I prepared a discourse upon it, and my 
name was put down to speak, but when my turn came I 
was so ill that I was unable to rise from bed. I got 
another Bishop to ask leave to read my address ; but it was 
ruled by the Presidents that it could not be read unless the 
author was present, and as there were more than forty 
speakers still on the list, the opportunity was lost. The 
sole object contemplated in that address was to propose the 
addition of a term in the definition which might tend to 
greater clearness. As I knew that impressions had been 
privately made on the mind of the Sovereign Pontiff with 
respect to my views, I solicited a special audience, in which 
I informed His Holiness that from the time of my theo- 
logical studies I had always been an Infalliblist, and that 
all I desired was to see that the definition should be as clear 
as it could be made. But in fact the lines of explanation 
added to the decree before its promulgation accomplished 

Autobiography of Archbistiop Ullatliorne. 47 

all that I desired. With this explanation His Holiness 
expressed himself well satisfied. 

Although our Dogmatic course was wisely conducted in 
Latin for the sake of accurate terminology, yet our pro- 
fessor decided to conduct the moral course in English, on 
account of the many and minute practical questions which 
belong to modern times and English customs. It was a 
happy circumstance for us, that just before we began this 
last study a Jesuit Father, on a visit from Bristol, intro- 
duced the great work of St. Alphonsus to the knowledge 
of our professor, together with the decrees in its favour. 
It consequently became our chief guide and saved us from 
the rigorism of Collet. At that time St. Thomas was little 
known in practice on this side of the Alps, except in 
quotations. Bishop Collingridge had also bequeathed a 
sum, at his death, for a reprint of the Praxis of Blessed 
Leonard of Port Maurice, which our professor superin- 
tended at about the same period. We thus had safe guides 
to Roman doctrines. Although our professor gave us the 
summary of many authors, when great questions were 
concerned he always left us free where the Church left us 
free ; but we chiefly followed the conclusions of St. 

I long endeavoured to form to my mind a map of theo- 
logical science in its order and logical sequence, getting the 
first start from the preface of Petavius, and so proceeding 
with time and study. For out of this intrinsic view of the 
whole system of Theology, there appears to me to arise one 
of the sublimest demonstrations of religion, a demonstra- 
tion that well deserves a book to itself. During these 
studies, the late Father Dullard, who, with permission of 
the Holy See, had passed from the Franciscan to the 
Benedictine Order, left in my cell for safe custody copies 
of the best editions of St. Augustine, Tertullian, St. Ber- 
nard, and Bossuet. To these I devoted much private time, 

48 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

and got initiated into the value of the Fathers of the 
Church ; which contributed much to breadth and freedom 
of mind. As to Bossuet, I never tired of him. His com- 
prehensive views tend so greatly to the enlargement and 
elevation of thought Comparing notes, at a later period, 
with such men as Abbot Gueranger, Cardinal Pitra, and 
other men of that stamp, I found them ascribing much of 
their mental enlargement to an early familiarity with the 
pages of Bossuet, notwithstanding his Gallicanism. 

Another book the study of which formed a real epoch in 
the history of my mind was a collection of the works 
attributed to St. Denys the Areopagite, which I read 
when a deacon at Ampleforth. Here I found Theology 
in its purest form divested of controversy, and written 
as if by a spirit with a pen of light ; explaining also, 
with wonderful lucidity, both the celestial and the ec- 
clesiastical hierarchies. These works I followed up with 
the "Apostolical Constitutions," which exhibit the early 
discipline of the Church in full detail. 

I have thus recorded the great landmarks of my 
reading, as a student, whilst regretting that the want of 
earlier and higher scholarship has been an obstacle to the 
better use of reading all my life. 


IN the month of October, 1828, I received the Sacrament 
of Confirmation from Bishop (afterwards Cardinal) Weld. 
I had never before seen a bishop, except Bishop Baines, 
when he officiated at the opening of the old Chapel of St. 
Gregory, the year after I arrived at Downside. On the 
same day I received the Minor Orders, and on October I2th 
of the same year the Sub-diaconate, together with my 
companions, Messrs. Kendal, Davis, and Dowding. On 
Ember Saturday, September, 1830, together with others of 
the brethren, I received the Order of Deacon. On March 
3rd, 1829, the aged bishop, Dr. Collingridge, of the Western 
District, departed this life, and Bishop Baines, who had 
been his coadjutor, succeeded him as Vicar-Apostolic. 

Soon after this event began the great conflict within 
the Anglo-Benedictine Congregation, arising out of the 
establishment by the Bishop of a great College at Prior 
Park, near Bath. Through his persuasions, the Superiors 
of the College of Ampleforth and several of the monks 
were induced to abandon their monastery and pass over to 
the Secular College at Bath. The Fathers of Downside 
not only stood firm to their Order, but even refused to give 
up a quota of their income to the support of Prior Park, 
rightly regarding the claim as uncanonical. The troubles 
arising out of this conflict are now a matter of past history 
which need not here be recapitulated. 


50 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

Soon after this time my Superiors wished to advance me 
to the Priesthood, before I had completed the course of 
Theology. But apprehending there might be difficulties 
raised by the Bishop about dispensation from time and 
interstices, a petition was sent to Rome, through Cardinal 
Weld, the Protector of the English Benedictines. His 
Eminence replied that it belonged not to the dignity of a 
Cardinal to act as agent as well as protector ; and so, to 
my individual satisfaction, I escaped from what I thought 
a premature ordination. However, I was not destined to 
continue my studies ; but with the Rev. Mr. Sinnot, a 
deacon as well as myself, I was sent to assist the new Prior 
in restoring the Monastery and College of Ampleforth after 
the great desolation caused by the events above referred to. 
Soon after arriving there I was appointed Professor of 
Theology to a small class ; but by the time I had prepared 
the first lesson the Prior had changed his mind, put an 
Irish Franciscan to that office, and appointed me Prefect 
of Discipline over the school. Although those who 
remained constant to the Order after the great desertion 
stood firm, yet there was still a flavour remaining of the 
spirit in which they had been trained. The new Prior was 
from the old house of Lambspring, and an old missioner, 
and was not accepted with perfect cordiality, still less the 
two members from Downside. This spirit communicated 
itself to the school, which had too intimate relations with 
one or two Religious. So no sooner had the new Prefect 
appeared, than there was chalked up on the walls, " No Hunt, 
No reform." I let the students have their little triumph 
for the day. But the next morning, after prayers, I let 
them know how surprised I was to find a college of boys 
with the manners of a pothouse. I observed that if one or 
two of them had chalked the walls in a style insulting to 
an entire stranger, the rest must have concurred, or they 
would have removed the disgrace fastened on the whole 

Autobiography of ArchbisJiop Utlatkorne. 51 

school. " I will not be severe with you," I said, " without 
necessity : I will give you till the next recreation hour to 
get the walls cleaned of their disgrace. If it is not done by 
then, I will stop all the school work until I find out the 
offenders. If I fail I shall conclude that the whole school 
is involved in the guilt, and shall punish by decimation." 
At the next recreation the walls were quite clean. Soon 
after, I expelled one of the older students and flogged a 
younger one, after which we became good friends and 
understood each other. 

Meanwhile I had received the Order of Priesthood, 
together with Mr. Sinnot, from Bishop Painswick at 
Ushaw. This, to me, great event took place on the 
Ember Saturday of September, 1831 ; nor need I dwell 
upon the great change which the Priesthood wrought in 
my spiritual habits. Only those who, after long prepara- 
tion, have entered under obedience into that sublime state 
and office, can in any degree realise what the Sacrament 
of the Priesthood does for the soul of the receiver. For 
weeks after my ordination I seemed to feel the sacred 
unction on my hands. The thought and feeling with which 
the Priesthood inspired me was one of sacrifice, making it 
appear to be the natural life of a priest whose soul had un- 
dergone a transformation into a new order of existence. 
The ideas of monk and priest appeared to my mind's eye 
in singular correlation with each other : the monk, as the 
man spontaneously offered to God through the call of His 
election of grace ; whilst the Priesthood, imparting the dis- 
tinctive character of Christ to the soul, absorbed the hidden 
life of Our Lord, and brought Him forth an open sacrifice 
for the souls of men. The tremendous mystery of the altar 
took visible form in my eyes, and was coloured to my in- 
ward sense as that Divine oblation of the Immaculate Lamb 
which on Heaven's golden altar was ever offered before the 
majesty of the Father, the earthly repetition of which made 

CT iiADV't rniiFGE 

52 Autobiography of Archbishop Llllathornc. 

by mortal man seemed to make the material altar stream 
with grace. As Prefect I felt reluctant to employ my con- 
secrated hands in punishing boys sent up to me for the 
purpose. I believe this sense of sacrifice impressed on my 
soul at my ordination had a secret force and some conscious 
influence in rendering me prompt to respond to the call to 
the Australian Mission. Alas ! that those deeper move- 
ments of the soul should slacken and suffer loss amid the 
strife and turmoil of subsequent life ! 

Soon after my ordination I was sent to the small missions 
of Craik and Easingwold on alternate Sundays. There I 
preached my first sermons, and did the Sunday duty. It 
was at Craik that Dr. Baines first began, and I found there 
a copy of " Archer's Sermons " covered with his marks for 
accentuation. It was there he first elaborated that style of 
enunciation which made him afterwards such a master 
of oratorical delivery. Some time before I received the 
Priesthood I had lost my dear father. He received the 
last Sacraments surrounded by his family ; and one of his 
assistants, who was likewise present, was so touched by 
this Catholic death-bed, the sacred rites which accompanied 
it, and the moving words of the priest, the Rev. Mr. Leyne, 
that he asked for instruction and to be received into the 
Church. It then came out that he had hitherto been the 
secretary of an Orange Lodge, which he at once re- 
linquished ; and, as he subsequently told me, the object 
of that Lodge was to do all the harm they could to the 
Catholic religion. 

Returning to Downside in 1831, I had scarcely settled 
down in my old monastery and begun to teach in the 
school, when Dr. Polding received briefs of appointment 
as Visitor-Apostolic to the Mauritius, where his uncle, Dr. 
Slater, was the Bishop. But he feared lest the intense 
heat of that island should relax his energies, and so 
respectfully declined the appointment. 


THROUGH the recommendation of Bishop Brampton, 
Vicar-Apostolic of the London District, Dr. Morris, a 
member of the Downside Community, who had for several 
years been the only member of any regular Order 
employed on the London Mission, was then appointed as 
Apostolic Visitor to the Mauritius, which appointment he 
accepted. He naturally wished to obtain co-operators 
from the house of his profession, and accordingly made 
application to the Superiors of Downside. In reply to his 
application he was told that if I were asked I should 
probably not be unwilling to go. This impression was, I 
believe, derived from an incident which took place several 
years before that time. I had been suffering for some 
two years from an acute inflammation of the liver, combined 
with sharp and continuous attacks of ague. I was going 
with other young Religious, in company with Dr. Folding, 
in a post chaise, to Bath, to consult a physician, when Dr. 
Folding began to talk of the great want of missioners in 
Australia ; he spoke of the sufferings of the convicts, and 
observed that there was not such a field in the wide world 
for missionary labour. He gave his own ideas as to the 
way in which such a mission should be managed, expressed 
his attraction for it, and asked us which of us would be 
ready to join him. I at once declared myself ready to do 
so. This conversation had evidently been laid up in Dr. 
Folding's mind, and had led to the mentioning of my 
name to Dr. Morris. When, therefore, Dr. Morris wrote 
to me, I replied that I had about a hundred reasons 

54 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

against going to the Mauritius, and almost as many for 
going to Australia. 

It must here be observed that the Bishop of the 
Mauritius had at that time a most extensive jurisdiction ; it 
reached, on the one side, to South Africa ; and on the other, 
over Australia and the South Sea Islands, including New 
Zealand. Dr. Morris replied that he equally required help 
for Australia, and asked me to go to New South Wales. I 
therefore submitted the question to my Superiors. The 
Prior at that time was Father Turner, an old Douay monk, 
a truly meek and holy man, whilst Drs. Folding and 
Brown filled the next offices. Dr. Folding advised me to 
wait, thinking that the time for the Australian Mission was 
not yet mature. But the Prior and Dr. Brown advised me 
to write to the President-General, who gave me up to the 
jurisdiction of Bishop Morris for the Australian Mission. 

I therefore proceeded to London, where I received the 
kindest hospitality from my relatives ; nor can I ever 
forget the affectionate co-operation or the prolonged 
hospitality of my confrere, the Rev. Dr. Heptonstall, who 
was the Procurator of the English Benedictines in London, 
and had a small mission at Acton. At that time I had no 
prospect of aid from the Colonial Government, but was 
going out at my own expense. That is to say, I had a 
little legacy from my father, which I was allowed to use, 
and which was doubled by my mother and two brothers. 
My first work was to form a library, for I knew that the 
books I should require could not be found in Australia. I 
therefore spent months in the old book shops and among 
their catalogues, and gathered together about a thousand 
volumes of Theology, Fathers, Canon law, and sacred 
literature, in every language of which I knew something. 
I then made a visit to Scarborough, where I bade farewell 
to my dear mother, brothers, and sisters, never expecting 
to see them again. 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 55 

Meanwhile a despatch had come from the Governor of 
New South Wales to the Secretary for the Colonies, which 
changed my position altogether. His Excellency repre- 
sented to the Secretary of State that there was no autho- 
rised head of the Catholic clergy in that colony, that 
difficulties had consequently arisen between the Government 
and the senior priest respecting grants of land, and that it 
was desirable to obtain the appointment of a Catholic 
ecclesiastic invested with due authority. Bishop Morris was 
in consequence invited to an interview at the Colonial 
Office, and he informed the Secretary of State that he had 
an ecclesiastic in view, whom he could appoint as his 
Vicar-General for Australia, with residence in Sydney, who 
would have all the authority required. This was agreed to, 
and a stipend was assigned by the Government of 200 a 
year, an allowance of 1 a day when travelling on duty, 
and for voyage and outfit 150. The title assigned to me 
by Government, in documents, beyond that of Vicar- 
General, was that of His Majesty's Catholic Chaplain in 
New South Wales. I also received a letter from the 
Colonial Secretary, recommending me to the Governors of 
the Australian Colonies. 

Dean Kenny, in his " Progress of the Catholic Religion in 
Australia," gives an anecdote about the spirit of my depar- 
ture, as derived from Dr. Heptonstall, which I may as well 
put in its authentic form. Just before sailing I happened 
to meet, in the streets of London, my old professor, Dr. 
Brown, and our old Professor of Greek, Dr. Heptonstall. 
On bidding them farewell they expressed their surprise 
that, going out alone, to the furthest extremity of the 
world, and leaving country and friends behind me, I should 
be so calm and, apparently, so indifferent. I simply inti- 
mated that, having God with me, the authority of the 
Church and a great vocation before me, I felt I was in my 
right place and had nothing else to care for. 



I SAILED in the Sir Thomas Mttnro, on September 
1 6th, 1832. A large ship is a very different thing from 
the brigs in which I had sailed as a boy ; and I was no 
longer a cabin boy, but a priest with a title expressive of 
responsible office. I had a good sized cabin which enabled 
me to enjoy retirement at any time. Although solitary as 
a Catholic, and unable to say Mass as a priest, and although 
I had but little in common with those around me, I 
never felt those long voyages tedious. I enjoyed the quiet 
and the absence of solicitude, and the retirement of my 
cabin, that floating hermit's cell. From my boyhood I had 
a good deal of the hermit in my composition, preferring to 
be alone, and having no attraction for society beyond the 
sense of duty. My attraction was to books and my own 
solitary musings. And though for many years I had the 
credit of putting out a good deal of practical energy, that 
was when duty called, and no longer. Archbishop Folding 
used to say, and with truth, that I required some exciting 
cause, or some difficulty to surmount, to draw out the sleep- 
ing energies within me. I never felt the disposition to take 
in hand the future before the present, and was thus saved 
from many useless solicitudes which torment the imagina- 
tion. Experience has taught me that things do not occur 
as the imagination is apt to paint them by anticipation, and 
that by tormenting yourself with anticipations of events in 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 57 

which you are to be engaged you only jaundice your eyes 
and warp your judgment. Napoleon's remark that the eye 
of the general should be as colourless as his glass is appli- 
cable to all who have to deal with difficult human affairs. 
I did not therefore tease myself with the unknown future, 
but in some degree, on St. Augustine's principle, I "joined 
myself to eternity and found rest." And of that eternity I 
had all around me the image in the boundless sea joined to 
the boundless heavens, always the same, yet always living 
in a change that spoke of God's never ceasing action in the 
created universe. On how many tranquil evenings and 
starry nights did I drink in a deeper sense of God's grandeur 
as Creator and controller of the boundless air and ocean, 
and of the worlds that twinkled above me as from a point ! 
There is nothing that inspires the sense of dependence on 
that sovereign will like the silent teaching of the trackless 
ocean through the process of the intelligence. 

Early habits had made me indifferent to all but the 
necessities of life, and I discarded many of those useless 
encumbrances which people call comforts. In the cabin 
there was much more luxury than I needed, and I never 
troubled the twelve o'clock " tiffin," or the eight o'clock 
assembly over the spirit bottles. For many years neither 
tea, coffee, ale, wine, or spirits suited my constitution ; I 
had steam enough within me to keep up the movement of 
life. Most of my companions made themselves miserable 
with the heat in the tropics ; and certainly the pitch would 
sometimes bubble up from between the seams of the deck, 
and your sticks of sealing wax would melt together : but 
these good people unnecessarily put fire into themselves, 
and heated themselves through the imagination by 
thinking about it. By keeping below when the ship was 
cool in the earlier part of the day, and coming on deck in 
the evening when the ship was hot, I was always cool 
when my companions were in misery. By a little manage- 

58 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

ment I saved myself this torment, and tried to impart 
some of my philosophy to others, but without success : 
they seemed to think that our natures were not the 

I had a sailor's heart for the poor fellows who manned 
the ship, and though I never spoke to them but a word or 
so on occasion, they seemed to know it by instinct, and 
always showed me particular respect. I fancy they liked 
to see the sturdy way in which I walked the deck in all 
weathers, and that independence of circumstances which 
came of the monk grafted on the sailor. Except the 
privation, therefore, of the Mass and the Church services, 
I was always inclined to regret when the voyages came to 
an end, and the quiet and retirement that they afforded 
me. They were a sort of prolonged retreat, uniting a 
course of spiritual with a course of ecclesiastical study, by 
which I in some degree made up for my abridged course 
before ordination. 

The rule of life which I adopted on board ship, and 
which I followed on all future occasions, never failed to 
give me influence on emergency. I followed a plan of 
studies in my cabin, but after meals I mixed in the 
general conversation. A long voyage at sea generally 
contributes to good fellowship ; yet, as the passengers are 
of a mixed description, and there is much weariness 
arising from indolence, and as wine and malt liquor are 
put twice a day on the table, and spirits in the evening as 
well, people are apt to talk too freely, and to let out those 
infirmities which are, ordinarily, family secrets. Hence 
misunderstandings are apt to arise, and sometimes 
antipathies. For instance, there was a very quiet Methodist 
minister with his wife and family on board this ship. 
They used the quarter deck, but had a large cabin, and 
second class food by themselves. They were very un- 
obtrusive and respectable in their way, but they were teased 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 59 

and put upon by a number of young men, for no better 
reason than their own thoughtless amusement. But my 
reserved habits enabled me to act as their protector on 
various occasions, and as they suffered a good deal of 
discomfort I privately sent them presents of wine and 
other things, which had been sent as presents to me, but 
for which I had no occasion. 

Feeling my deficiency in Ecclesiastical law, I made it a 
point of special study, and directed special attention to what 
concerned the authority and jurisdiction of a Vicar-General. 
For, by my deed of appointment, this extended over the 
whole of Australia, Van Dieman's Land alone excepted, 
which was left to the only priest then in that colony. I knew 
that I should be some four thousand miles away from my 
Bishop, with whom the means of communication would be 
rare and casual. Even the consecrated oils for the Sacra- 
ments were received from London, much after date, and 
there was the whole breadth of the world between these 
colonies and the Holy See. I felt, then, that I should have 
to act almost as if the complete authority of the Church 
were concentrated in my office, and to rely on my own 

We put in at the Cape of Good Hope, where, on landing, 
I found but one priest for the whole of South Africa. He 
was an English Benedictine from Ampleforth, and an 
accomplished man. His congregation, at that time, was a 
mixture from all the nations of Europe and the East, and 
they gave him much trouble, so much so that he often got 
into fits of abstraction and ground his teeth together. He 
was subsequently brought to England with the loss of his 
mind. This was the first opportunity I had of observing 
the impolicy of leaving one priest alone in a remote 
colony. Later on I was destined to see more of this 

We beat up against the wind under a heavy gale, and 

60 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 

bore such a stress of sail that we were mistaken by the 
people for a man-of-war. The bold and lofty mountain 
rising over the town, with the flat table at the top, was 
covered with its cloth of clouds, at the end of which hung 
a rainbow, whilst the descending sun threw an exquisite 
colouring over the vast and stormy scene. The Dutch 
have built Cape Town after the fashion of their streets at 
home, in broad straight lines and at right angles, void of 
all protection from the fierce winds, sun, and dust, so that 
even the gentlemen had to wear blue veils for the 
protection of their eyes. 

Enjoying the hospitality of the Rev. Father, I was much 
interested in the novel vegetation to be seen on all sides, 
and the diversity of races, and especially with the social 
customs of the Hottentots and the Malays. I visited a 
particular friend of the priest's, and one of his chief 
supporters, who was quite a character. A West Indian 
Creole by birth, he had begun life as a player on the violin, 
and had risen to wealth by supplying the exotic gardens of 
Europe with seed, and its menageries with wild animals. 
He had lions, tigers, ostriches, and other wild animals 
ready in iron cages for shipment. His hospitable table 
was surrounded by a large family, and in the centre of his 
hall stood an immense basket of oranges for the free use, 
at all times, of his children. His establishment was a 

Setting sail again, we ran with a fair wind and stiff 
breeze all the way to the Australian coast, where, passing 
through Basso Straits, we entered the harbour of Circular 
Head, so called from a huge rock, or rather mountain of 
rock, in the shape of a drum, rising up from the sea, and 
covered with forest, that sheltered the bay within. Here 
were the head-quarters of the Van Dieman's Land 
Company, which had received from Government half a 
million of acres on which to establish an improved system 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 6 1 

of agriculture. The manager, Mr. Curr, was an English 
Catholic, and brother of a priest from whom I brought 
letters. The homestead was certainly in a flourishing 
condition, both as to vegetable and animal production ; 
but, with the exception of the manager, his family, and a few 
superintendents, the whole settlement consisted of convict 
labourers assigned to the Company. Here I had no juris- 
diction, and the only priest in the island, which was about 
the size of Ireland, resided at Hobart Town on the opposite 
coast. To the great surprise of all on board, I received no 
more attention than any other passenger. We were invited 
in parties, once, to dine whilst part of the cargo was un- 
loading ; but I was left on board like any other stranger, 
except that I was asked to baptise three of the manager's 
children, who were old enough to play with the stole and 
to make remarks whilst the Sacrament was being adminis- 
tered. The letters in which I described my first impression 
of the country, its singular trees shedding the bark instead 
of the leaves, the odoriferous shrubs and scentless flowers, 
the rich plumage of the birds, and the diversity of the shells 
and sponges on the shore these and similar ones of later 
date were long preserved by my brother Owen, but were 
unfortunately destroyed by his widow. 

From Circular Head we sailed for Hobart Town. No 
one will ever forget his first entrance into Storm Bay : its 
vast expanse and depth ; its basalt columns rising out of 
the cliffs like gigantic organs ; its numerous islands of 
basalt of varied and fantastic shapes, as we approached 
the mouth of the Derwent; and Mount Wellington towering 
3,000 feet in the distance and marking the position of the 
capital. To enliven the scene, a shoal of black whales was 
crossing the bay and shore-boats were after them. We saw 
one that had been struck with the harpoon, flying rapidly 
through the water, towing the boat whose harpoon had 
struck the huge fish, the boat with its fore-timbers out of the 

62 Atitobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

foaming flood, and the men sitting as still as death. 
Another whale had been struck repeatedly, its spoutings 
were red with mingled blood, and the harpooner, leaning on 
the instrument, was forcing it into the exhausted body as 
it lay upon the waters. We wound through the islands 
the pilot pointing out Brumdi amongst them, as producing 
the best potatoes in the world and entered the Derwent, 
sailing up between its beautiful sloping shores until we 
turned into Sullivan's Cove, when we beheld the city, with 
Mount Wellington towering over it. 

The one priest was absent on his annual visit to Laun- 
ceston, on the opposite side of the island. I was hospitably 
lodged and entertained by Mr. Hackett, a native of Cork, 
and a distiller; a man of information, popular among the few 
Catholics, and influential in the town. Meeting the leading 
Catholics, all of Irish origin, I soon began to hear a sad 
account of the state of Catholic affairs, which my own sub- 
sequent knowledge but too much confirmed. 

I must refer to my two pamphlets, " The Catholic 
Mission in Australasia," published in England in 1837, 
and " The Reply to Judge Burton," published in Sydney in 
1839, for the history of Catholic affairs before my arrival. 
The first priest who arrived with authority in New South 
Wales was the Very Rev. Jeremiah O'Flynn, who was in- 
vested by the Holy See with the title of Archpriest, with 
power to administer the Sacrament of Confirmation. He 
arrived in Sydney, by the ship Duke of Wellington, on 
August 3rd, 1817. All those Catholics who remembered 
him spoke with great reverence of his mild, religious 
character, his great charity, and his fluency in speaking the 
Irish language. He was of a Religious Order, and, if I 
remember rightly, a Capuchin. There was no charitable 
institution at that time for receiving the helpless poor, and 
he took into his residence several aged and decrepit people, 
whom he lived with and maintained. But as he had come 

Autobiography of Archbishop UllatJiorne. 63 

without any authority from the Home Government, the 
Colonial Government, influenced by a strong anti-Catholic 
party, illegally seized upon him, put him in prison, 
and sent him back to England by the first ship. This tyran- 
nical act produced a'great sensation at home : Mr. Hutchi- 
son, of the Donoughmore family, member for Cork, brought 
the whole case before Parliament; and under the influence 
of Lord Bathurst two priests were sent out, Father 
Connolly and Father Therry, each with a stipend of ;ioo 
a year. They arrived in Sydney in 1820, but soon after- 
wards they disagreed, and Father Connolly went to Hobart 
Town, where he landed in March, 1821, and remained there 
without seeing a brother priest until 1833. 

A state of things grew up under his regime which gave 
rise to many complaints. I found the chapel in a most 
disgraceful state, though the house was decent. Built 
of boards with the Government broad arrow on them, the 
floor had never been laid down, but consisted of loose 
planks, with their edges curled by the heat, and sharp as 
well as loose under the knees of the people. There was a 
coating of rough plaster on the wall behind the altar, 
covered with a black glazed cotton all over filth, that had 
hung there ever since the death of George IV. The altar, 
a framework of wood, had a similar black glazed cotton 
for the frontal, and the dirty altar-cloths were covered with 
stains. The space between the two ends of the altar and 
the side walls were refuge holes for all kinds of rubbish, 
such as old hats, buckets, mops, and brooms. There were 
no steps to the altar, but the same loose planks that formed 
the entire floor, and no seats for the people. The chalice 
and ciborium were tarnished as black as ink. I cleaned the 
sacred vessels, cleared out the rubbish from the sides of the 
altar, and laid smooth planks down across the front of it to 
make the footing steady. On two Sundays I preached 
to the people, who, unaccustomed to be spoken to sympa- 
thetically, were moved to tears. 

64 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

Sir George Arthur, the Governor, received me with 
great courtesy, and invited me to meet at dinner the 
Protestant Archdeacon Broughton, who was on a visit with 
his large family from Sydney, and was afterwards the 
first Anglican Bishop of Australia. At a later interview 
the Governor opened up the subject of religion, and we 
had a long private conversation on the subject. He was 
himself a very earnest Anglican of the Evangelical school. 
He put certain questions to me, not mentioning that his 
friend, the Archdeacon, was at that very time writing a 
pamphlet on the subject, which I had afterwards to answer 
in Sydney. Yet I recall with pleasure the courtesies I 
received from Governor Arthur. 

Father Connolly returned before I left Hobart Town ; 
he expressed no discontent at what I had done in the 
chapel, as the people thought he would, but rather 
approval, gave me his own ideas of the state of things 
in Sydney, and we parted friends. 


I MADE it a point of policy not to send any previous 
notice of my coming to Sydney, where I arrived in the 
month of February, 1833. I walked up straight to the 
priest's residence, and there I found a grave and 
experienced priest in Father McEncroe, who had formerly 
been Vicar-General to Bishop England in South Carolina. 
He had come from Ireland to Sydney the year previous 
with Mr. Attorney-General Plunkett, his wife, and sister. 
From him I learnt a good deal of how things stood. 
Father Therry had gone to Parramatta, but quickly 
hearing of the arrival of another priest, returned that 
evening. The housekeeper was the widow of the celebrated 
John Maguire, who kept the British troops at bay in the 
Wicklow Mountains after the insurrection of 1798 had 
been put down in the west of Ireland. At last he 
surrendered, on condition that he and his family should be 
conveyed out free to New South Wales. Father Therry 
had promised the gallant old man on his death-bed that he 
would protect his wife and family. 

I looked so youthful that the first language of Father 
Therry, and even of his housekeeper, was naturally 
patronising ; but after dinner I produced the document 
appointing me Vicar-General, with jurisdiction over the 
whole of New South Wales, as well as the rest of New 
Holland, after reading which Father Therry immediately 
went on his knees. This act of obedience and submission 

66 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne, 

gave me great relief. I felt that he was a truly religious 
man, and that half the difficulty was over. At his 
invitation I went with him that evening to the house of a 
gentleman, where I found myself in company with 
precisely the three persons with whom it was represented 
to me in England that I should find my difficulty. But, in 
fact, they were all very good men, and we became great 
friends. Still I was internally amused, for they evidently 
took me for a raw college youth ; and I humoured the 
notion, and was told at a later time that after I had left 
they had talked of sending me to Bathurst, then the 
remotest part of the Colony. 

The next morning as I came from Mass in the little 
chapel, Father Therry met me and said : " Sir, there are 
two parties among us, and I wish to put you in possession 
of my ideas on the subject." I replied : " No, Father 
Therry, if you will pardon me, there are not two parties." 
He warmed up, as his quick sensitive nature prompted, and 
replied, with his face in a glow : " What can you know 
about it ? You have only just arrived, and have had no 
experience." " Father Therry," I said, with gravity, 
" listen to me. There were two parties yesterday ; there 
are none to-day. They arose from the unfortunate want 
of some person endowed with ecclesiastical authority, 
which is now at an end. For the present, in New South 
Wales, I represent the Church, and those who gather not 
with me scatter. So now there is an end of parties." 

That day I went by coach to Parramatta, to see the 
Governor at his country residence. Sir Richard Bourke 
had recently lost his wife, to whom he was much attached, 
and was ill in bed. But he was anxious to have the 
Catholic affairs settled, and gave me an audience in his 
bedroom. The fine old soldier was one of the most 
polished men I ever met. In his younger days he had 
been a good deal under the influence of the celebrated 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 67 

Edmund Burke, and was a man of extensive information 
as well as experience. The statue erected to his memory 
in Sydney bears recorded on its base the great measures 
by which he gave freedom and social progress to the 
Colony. Though not a Catholic, he had a great respect 
for the Catholic religion, and had many Catholic relatives 
and friends. He received me with great kindness, and we 
soon understood each other. I listened to his remarks, 
and then asked leave to see him again after I had inquired 
into the points of which he spoke. I returned to Sydney, 
and on the Sunday I announced my powers to the people 
from the altar, and stated that I suspended all affairs 
connected with the business of the Church for a fortnight, 
when, after making due inquiries, I would call a public 
meeting of the Catholics. 

Father Therry was quite an exceptional character. He 
was truly religious, never omitting to say Mass daily even 
in difficult circumstances ; and up the country, when he 
could find no appropriate roof for the purpose, he would 
have a tent erected in some field or on some mountain 
side. He also said the Rosary in public almost every 
evening, gathering as many people as he could. He was 
of a highly sensitive temperament, and readily took offence, 
but was ready soon after to make reparation. He was full 
of zeal, but wanting in tact, so that he repeatedly got into 
trouble with the Government, and sometimes with the 
successive ecclesiastical authorities. Hence the long dif- 
ficulties which arose after he was superseded as Vicar- 
General in Tasmania by its first bishop. Having passed 
from trade to his studies, he had sufficient knowledge of 
his duties, but was too actively employed to be a reader. 
Having been the sole priest in the Colony for some eleven 
years, he was very popular, not only with the poor 
Catholics, for whose sake he did not spare himself, but with 
all classes of the population. Being the one representative 

68 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathornc. 

of the Church in those times, landed property was 
bequeathed to him in various places by Catholics who had 
no relatives in the Colony. This he always treated as his 
private property, though he never took much trouble about 
it. But in his will he bequeathed it all to religious 

Government policy was still strongly in favour of an 
exclusive Established Church under the Crown. A Royal 
Commissioner, Mr. Briggs, was sent out to report on the 
condition of the Colony ; Mr. Thomas Hobbs Scott, 
formerly a wine merchant, accompanied him as secretary. 
On their return Mr. Scott was made the first Protestant 
Archdeacon of the Colony ; and on his arrival announced 
his intention to organise the Protestant Church, to establish 
parishes and schools, and to hand over to a corporation one- 
seventh of the land of the Colony for that purpose. This 
was accomplished by a deed under the sign manual of 
George IV. Moreover, in the orphanage established by 
Government at Parramatta, the children left without 
parents were all to be taught the Protestant religion. This 
new state of affairs was very alarming to the Catholic 
population, and Father Therry addressed a letter to the 
Sydney Herald (which was at that time also the Govern- 
ment Gazette) on June 6th, 1825, in which he signified his 
intention of forming a Catholic School Society, and also 
of doing his best to establish Catholic cemeteries, which 
would prevent many inconveniencies, besides avoiding 
collision with the Anglican clergy. But at the close of the 
letter he spoke of the Protestant clergy as entertaining 
for them, as it appeared in print, "qualified respect." 
Father Therry explained that this was a misprint, and 
that he had written the word "unqualified." Nevertheless 
the letter was made an excuse for withdrawing his small 
salary, and of excluding him from officiating in any 
Government establishment ; thus prohibiting him from 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 69 

visiting the prisons, hospitals, and similar institutions.* 
This occurred under the Government of Sir Thomas 
Brisbane, and soon after the arrival of Archdeacon Scott 
with the purely Protestant scheme of an exclusive 
Establishment. It is said that Father Therry was offered 
a small sum of money, 300, to leave the Colony, but of 
that I never heard, and have no proof. 

In the year 1829 Sir Roger Therry arrived as Solicitor- 
General and Commissioner of the Court of Requests. He 
was the first Catholic appointed by the Home Govern- 
ment after the Emancipation Act. On taking office, the 
Protestant oath was tendered to him. He asked for the 
Catholic one. The official replied : " Now that the point 
of honour is settled, it can make no difference." " It 
makes all the difference in life," replied Sir Roger. So 
the Catholic oath was produced. In 1832 Father 
McEncroe arrived, in company with Mr. Plunkett, his wife, 
and sister. Mr. Plunkett came with the appointment of 
Attorney-General. These two Catholic gentlemen, both of 
high character, were the first men of position who were 
earnest in the practice and support of their religion, and 
their influence was of great value. Two other Catholic 
gentlemen had come out with office at an earlier time, but 
they concealed their religion until it was lost to themselves 
and their families. It was a saying in Sydney when I 
arrived that Lady Thierry's was the first bonnet that had 

* " Whilst still under this ban Father Therry went to visit a dying 
man at one of the hospitals, but was stopped by the guard when 
about to enter. Father Therry said : ' The salvation of this man 
depends on my ministration ; which is your first duty ? ' The guard 
lowered his arms and permitted him to pass. On another occasion, 
going to the infirmary to visit a sick person, the doorkeeper bade him 
wait till he should have ascertained from the attendant surgeon 
whether he could be admitted. Whilst he was away, Father Therry, 
who knew all the passages of the place, gave the sick person the 
consolations of religion, and on returning met the official, who told 
him he could not be admitted." Dean Kenny, " History of Catho- 
licity in Australia," p. 51. 

70 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 

appeared in the Catholic congregation. But when I 
reached Sydney things had very much changed in that 
respect. In 1829 the Rev. J. V. Dowling also arrived, and 
made his residence at Windsor. These were the only two 
clergymen besides Father Therry whom I found in the 
Colony in 1833, and both qf them had stipends from the 

The chief difficulty on my arrival regarded the church 
in Sydney, which Father Therry had begun soon after his 
arrival, but which was not yet completed. It was on a 
very large scale, with transepts raised to a great height, 
with walls of massive solidity, and with large crypts 
beneath. The Government had granted the site for the 
church, and an ample space for whatever buildings might 
be required in addition ; but it had never been conveyed to 
trustees, which the Government now required to be done. 
Moreover, Father Therry claimed an extent of land 
considerably larger than the Government admitted to have 
been granted, and there was no documentary evidence 
producible. The land in question formed part of Sydney 
Park, and the addition which he claimed would have made 
considerable inroad into the open space. The Government 
appointed its own surveyor to measure and mark out the 
grant, but Father Therry resisted, and the result was that 
the Catholic Attorney-General was put into a painful 
position, having received directions to bring an action 
against the Father, which was only stayed by my 

On my second visit to the Governor I asked his 
Excellency to allow me to arrange that instead of six lay 
trustees, as demanded, I might be allowed to have three 
clerical trustees of my own appointment, and three lay 
trustees to be selected by the congregation. This, I said, 
would secure three very respectable laymen, in whom 
everyone would confide, but if six laymen were required it 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 71 

would lead to serious conflicts. Sir Richard at once 
understood it, and consented. " Anything reasonable," he 
said, "for the sake of peace." I then solicited his 
Excellency to join with me in completing the church for 
service ; for we had not a single church completed. In 
Sydney we had only the use of a Government building, 
used for the Court of Requests, where we had the Sunday 
services and a school on week-days. If the Government 
would complete the woodwork, including the flooring, I 
would put in the sixty large windows. His Excellency 
agreed to this also. 

On the Sunday appointed for the meeting, I first said 
the Mass and then preached an earnest sermon on unity. 
I then took the chair, on my own motion, and knowing 
that several people had come prepared to rake up stories 
of the past, and to load my ears with grievances, I put a 
stop to all this by saying that we were not met to talk, 
but to vote ; that hitherto painful divisions had prevailed 
owing to the want of an authority, but as there was now a 
duly appointed authority all good Catholics would adhere 
to it ; and as to past troubles, the sooner they were 
forgotten the better. Let us put a ponderous tombstone 
of oblivion over them, and then leave them in God's 
hands. Let all the congregation, except the servants of 
the Crown (the convicts), put the three names they wish 
for trustees into the voting box. This was done. The 
three names turned up were those of Mr. Attorney- 
General Plunkett, Mr. Commissioner Therry, and Mr. 
Murphy ; the latter being a most respectable Emancipist, 
who had been unjustly transported, was now a wealthy 
man, and universally respected. I then appointed Father 
Therry and Father McEncroe, with myself, as the three 
clerical trustees. Thus ended our troubles, for the six 
trustees would now have to deal with the Government as 
to the extent of land to be granted. As I saw that all 

72 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

were relieved and in good humour, I said I should be 
happy now to hear any remarks that anyone was disposed 
to offer. This brought out expressions of thankfulness 
and unity from the leaders, and the meeting closed. I have 
been thus particular in detailing the steps taken to 
establish peace and order, because, after this stroke of 
policy, it was never afterwards interrupted. 

Passing from the meeting to my residence, I was met 
at the door by a poor ragged Irishman, the only man in 
tatters I had yet seen. He asked me if I would please 
listen to what he had to say. " Well," I said, " what is 
it?" In reply he poured out a stream of hexameter 
verses, in perfect metre and harmony, describing the 
meeting and all its incidents, winding up with a touching 
thanksgiving for the peace restored to the Catholic body. 
I asked my Irish troubadour, with some astonishment, 
what reduced a man of his ability and elevation of mind to 
such a condition. He replied : " I am a child of nature, 
your Reverence ; and I cannot refuse the drink which my 
countrymen give me in their generosity." . Some years 
later, when in the interior country, I called upon a wealthy 
Catholic magistrate, who pressed me to stay for dinner, 
promising me something interesting afterwards if I would 
do so. I consented, and after dinner in rolled my 
troubadour from the farm, in a fat and fine condition, 
smiling all over his face. Standing by the door, he 
resumed the history of my transactions from the time of 
the meeting, rolling out a stream of sweet and harmonious 
verses without halt or fault for an hour. He was a self- 
taught man, a mere child of impulse, and spoke in tones 
the tender sweetness of which I completely recall at this 
hour. I never saw him again. 

Writing home on the day of my arrival, with the window 
open before me, suddenly there came a darkness. I 
looked up, and there was the head of the chief of the 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathornc. 73 

Sydney tribe thrust through the window to see what was 
going on. His black face painted red under the eyes, wild 
mass of hair, beetling brow, big jaws, crushed nose, white 
teeth, and naked shoulders ; the grin on his face ; the 
energetic nodding of his head, formed a picture so 
grotesque and unexpected that it required a little effort to 
return his greetings with politeness. Behind him was his 
gin, the poor princess of his tribe, peering out of the 
blanket with which she was enveloped. I gave them some 
coppers, and sketched them into the letter I was writing. 
We were the intruders into their dominions, not they upon 
ours, and their tribe had already dwindled down to half a 
dozen fighting men. Father Therry was habitually kind 
to these poor creatures, who camped and held their dances 
and their funerals in a valley by the seashore, about half a 
mile below our residence. He often fed them when in 
want. But there was no making any religious impression 
upon them. Any allusion to a God reduced them to 
silence. They had a fear of evil spirits, which they some- 
times showed at night, and imagined that the spirits of 
men after death came back in other forms. 

Father McEncroe and I had once a most interesting 
account from two young men, of the Botany Bay tribe, 
telling us their traditions of the arrival of Captain Cook in 
that bay. When they saw the two ships they thought 
them to be great birds. They took the men upon them in 
their clothes, and the officers and marines in their cocked 
hats, for strange animals. When the wings (that is, the 
sails) were closed up, and the men went aloft, and they saw 
their tails hanging down (sailors wore pigtails in those 
days) they took them for long-tailed opossums. When the 
boat came to land, the women were/much frightened ; they 
cried and tried to keep the men back. The men had 
plenty of spears, and would go on. Cook took a branch 
rom a tree and held it up. They came on, and they 

74 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 

trembled. Then Cook took out a bottle and drank, and 
gave them it to drink. They spat it out salt water ! It 
was their first taste of rum. Cook took some biscuit and 
ate it, and gave them some. They spat it out something 
dry ! It was the old ship-biscuit. Then Cook took a 
tomahawk and chopped a tree. They liked the tomahawk 
and took it. Thus the first gift they saw the value of was 
the axe that was destined to clear their woods and to 
make way for the white man. Allowing for the broken 
English, that is an accurate narrative of the tradition of 
the Botany Bay tribe. 

Dr. Bland, an old inhabitant, told me that in early days 
he had witnessed a fight between the Sydney and the 
Botany Bay tribes on the very ground before the house. 
After hurling their fourteen feet spears, they closed, and 
each struck his antagonist with his waddy, a club of hard 
wood, and then chivalrously presented his head to receive 
the return blow, striking alternately until one of them was 
laid prostrate. I was walking on one occasion with Father 
McEncroe on the same ground, when a young native 
fled across our path naked and unarmed ; a second, with 
his waddy, followed in chase ; whilst a third appeared in 
the distance. The first plunged into the Government 
domain, an aboriginal forest with walks cut through it. 
We followed by the shortest cut in the same direction, but 
only arrived in time to find the first man killed with the 
ivaddy of the second, who had fled. The third came up in 
terrible excitement, his naked skin fretted and his eyes 
bursting. He was the brother of the man who was slain. 
Finding life extinct, he sent up one cry and then rushed 
after the slayer. The police brought the body into our 
stable, and an inquiry was made. But it was found to be 
a case of native feud between two tribes following their 
own laws. The body was given up to the tribe to whom it 
belonged, and I heard the funeral rites performed that 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 75 

night in the valley below. Nothing could be done for the 
souls of these poor creatures, corrupted as they were 
among the Europeans. Some youths, however, from tribes 
more remote, were brought up in Catholic families and 
became regular communicants ; but as soon as they 
reached manhood, the savage revived, they flung off their 
clothes, and rejoined their tribe. 

Soon after my arrival at Sydney a venerable old man, 
who lived by splitting timber in the woods, came for his 
annual visit to goto his religious duties ; for, like thousands 
of others, he lived in the bush a long way from any priest. 
He remembered the early days when Sydney was nothing 
but a penal settlement. He was a tall man, with white 
hair and a bowed head, with much refinement of speech 
and manner; an old insurrectionist of 1798. He spoke 
much of Father Flynn, and said with touching pathos : 
" If Father Flynn had been let remain, what would not 
have been done ? " He had the sweetest and swiftest 
tongue of Irish I ever heard. 

Another tall old man, with the same breadth of chest 
and shoulders, and the bearing of a chief, used to be led from 
the convict barracks every Saturday by a boy (for he was 
stone blind) to make his confession. And always, after 
concluding, he made a brief, but solemn, act of thanksgiving 
aloud for the gift of blindness, as it shut out half the 
wickedness in the midst of which he was compelled to live. 

Bushranging, with its venturesome hazards, had an 
attraction to the Irish convicts, and some of the most 
desperate bushrangers were Irishmen. But it was a rule 
among bushrangers of all descriptions, English and Irish, 
never to touch a priest. They had a fixed idea that if 
they did they would never have luck again. So we always 
knew we were safe. Once, going on a sick call from 
Sydney to Liverpool, a man sprang out of the bush with 
a blunderbuss on his shoulders, and seized the horse's 

76 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

head. I was sitting in my gig, wrapped in a cloak, and at 
once disengaged my hands, whilst my servant prepared 
for a spring on him, when the bushman, seeing my face in 
the moonlight, ran off among the trees. The men in 
the condemned cells have told both the Bishop and the 
priests of particular times and circumstances when they 
passed them by, lying in wait in their hiding-places. 

There were several soldiers in the i;th Regiment who went 
to their weekly Communion, and at least twenty-two who 
went once a fortnight. One young man I particularly 
remember, who was quite a contemplative. He had 
received the Carmelite scapular before he entered the 
army, and had persevered in a habit of prayer and fast- 
ing. He spent all his sentry watches in prayer. He had 
to stand sentry by the jail, close to the gibbet, one night 
after two men had been hung upon it ; and such was his 
terror at the working of his imagination in that ghastly spot, 
with the shades of night around him, that, as he afterwards 
told me with a sense of gratitude, nothing but the earnest- 
ness with which he said his prayers, and so conquered his 
imagination, saved him from throwing down his musket 
and running away. The incidents of the barrack-room and 
the rigours of military discipline served him as subjects of 
self-mortification, and he certainly had a tender conscience 
and an habitual sense of the presence of God. He kept 
several of his comrades steady to their religious duties. I 
have often wondered what became of this young soldier, 
who had then gone on well and holily for several years. 

There was a convict about thirty years old, far up the 
country on the Bathurst range, beyond the Blue Mountains, 
who was quite a contemplative. A shepherd, always 
following his sheep over extensive pastures, and except at 
lambing and shearing times, always alone, or nearly so, he 
spent his time in prayer and enjoyed his solitude. There 
was then no priest resident in all that country ; and 

Autobiography of A re /ibis /top U Hat home. 77 

his master was so pleased with his steady, reliable conduct, 
and the care he took of his sheep, that he let him come 
down once a year to Sydney to receive the Sacraments, 
and gave him five shillings to buy food on the way. He 
walked upwards of a hundred miles for this purpose, 
praying by the way. He would stop a few days in 
Sydney, and I used to give him half-a-crown to help 
him back, and then he returned to his wilderness. He had 
the gentleness of manner which the habits of prayer and 
solitude give. 

I was often struck with the injustice that men constantly 
commit in generalising the habits of criminals, and leaving 
them not one virtue or humane quality. I have often sat 
at the table of lawyers and attendants at the criminal courts 
and have heard them discuss the criminals they had been 
engaged in trying, or hearing tried ; and have observed 
how natural is the disposition, even of shrewd men, to apply 
the principle, "he who offends in one point is guilty of all," 
in a sense certainly never contemplated in the sacred 
Scriptures. There the sense intended undoubtedly is that 
the offender against one point of law is guilty against 
the principle on which all law is based, and against the 
God Whose command is disobeyed, and against that love 
of God which is the object and end of all law. But men of 
the world have a habit, fostered specially in law courts and 
among those who deal with criminals, of concluding that 
" once a criminal, always a criminal ; " and that to have 
offended once implies a natural malignity ready on occasion 
to perpetrate every crime. Such monsters, however, are 
rare in human nature. I have often had the opportunity of 
comparing men, as from my scant knowledge I knew them 
inwardly, with the judgment passed upon them by those 
who knew the same criminals only by the outward evidence 
that is brought into the courts of justice. And I have seen 
the vast amount of practical truth embodied in the inspired 

78 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 

sentence, "Man sees in the face, but God beholds the heart." 
This singular experience has forced on me the necessity of 
a divine judgment to rectify the judgment of men, more 
than all the high theories drawn up on the subject, from 
the treatise of the pagan Plutarch down to the reasonings 
of the Catholic De Maistre. 

By Christmas night the great church was completed, 
and we began to have the services and devotions in a more 
becoming manner. The congregation became large and 
communicants were much increased. With the aid of the 
Government I also began a school chapel on the Rocks, 
among the rudest part of the population. Father Therry 
often made visits into the more populous parts of the interior. 
I visited various districts occasionally, and especially 
Maitland, on the river Hunter; St. Patrick's Plains, higher 
up the country ; Newcastle, at the mouth of the Hunter ; 
the beautiful district of Illawara ; Bathurst, beyond the 
Blue Mountains ; and sometimes Parramatta. Our usual 
way of travelling was on horseback, with a servant on 
another horse carrying the vestments and altar-stone. We 
always carried the Blessed Sacrament in a pyx in the 
breast pocket, not knowing where or when we might come 
upon the sick and dying. The Holy See has since pro- 
hibited this practice ; and recollecting that we often had to 
stay the night in taverns, and in more miserable places, 
I think there was wisdom in the prohibition. My oil 
stocks, through wearing a hole in the pocket, were lost 
in the desolate Blue Mountains. But, strange to say, a 
Frenchwoman passed that way, found them, and concluded 
that they must belong to a priest, and so they were 
finally recovered. A silver snuff-box lost in the same 
region was never recovered, although my name was upon 
it and I offered a reward for it. I valued it as a gift from 
my mother. 

We generally used the police courts for chapels, but at 

Autobiography of ArcJibishop Ullathorne. 79 

Bathurst I used the ballroom of the Royal Hotel, built 
over the stables, and at Appin I said Mass in a room of 
the tavern, where I preached against drunkenness. The 
innkeeper, a worthy Catholic, was rallied about this sermon; 
but he said : " We will take anything from his Rever- 
ence." I was breakfasting after my work in this inn, when 
I was told that a man wanted to see me. " Bring him in," 
said I. " Good morning, your Reverence," he said at the 
door. " Good morning to you ; when were you at your 
duties last ? " " Ah, it's not them, your Reverence." 
"Well, what is it?" "To tell your Reverence the truth, 
the other day I got drunk, and I promised my wife on 
my knees that I would not take a drop of drink for 
twelve months, unless through the hands of a priest. And 
if your Reverence could just let me take a bottle of rum 

through your hands to keep Christmas with " " Well, 

I will make a bargain with you. Father Therry will be 
here about Christmas, and if you promise me to go to 
your duties with him, and only to drink it moderately, 
two glasses at a time with your family, you shall have a 
bottle of rum." It was brought in and paid for, when 
the man held it up to the light, and said : " It looks very 
nice, wouldn't your Reverencehave a little drop ? " "Come," 
I said, " you want the bottle opened. It won't do ; go and 
keep your promise, and mind this, I shall inquire if you 
do keep it." "But," he said, "your Reverence must touch 
the bottle ; that was in my oath." 

Wherever we went the Catholic innkeepers entertained 
us and our horses, and would never accept payment. 
When we reached a township, the first day was spent in 
riding round the country, visiting all the settlers, Protest- 
ant as well as Catholic, to ask leave for the convict 
servants to come to Mass and the Sacraments next day. 
The whole of the next day was occupied with people 
coming and going, and perhaps a second day was required 

8o Autobiography of Archbishop UllatJiorne. 

for Communions. The heat was often intense, and after 
riding round both man and horse were exhausted. To 
approach a farm required a little management. The 
moment you appear, a whole chorus of barking dogs rush 
out to meet you; and there you must stand surrounded 
with them until someone comes to take you under protec- 
tion, after which your claims to hospitality are admitted 
and you are greeted with a wagging of tails. But woe to 
you if, after a hard day's ride, one of your first salutations 
is : " What a pity, we are just going to kill ; " for this 
means that there is no meat in the house, and that your 
diet will be damper and tea, with an egg or two damper 
being a heavy unleavened cake baked in the ashes, and so 
called, no doubt, from the damp it puts on your digestion. 
Hospitality, however, a hearty welcome, and the best that 
can be had, never fail in the Australian bush. 

But, at times, one gets into queer places, and meets with 
odd incidents. Archbishop Folding was sleeping one night 
in a log hut, with open rafters above. Awaking, he saw 
two small lights in the upper roof, and was puzzled to 
make out what they were. They looked like two greenish 
stars peering through the shingles. But the mystery was 
solved by a cat pouncing down from the beams and seizing 
him by the nose. Having a sick call from Sydney to 
Illawara, a ride of eighty miles, a very heavy rain came 
on, and I stopped at a wooden hut for shelter. As the 
downpour continued the good people offered to lend me 
a beautiful blue cloth cloak, which hung up in the room 
and which someone had left there for a time. When it 
was taken off at the house where I stopped the whole 
inside of it was covered with bugs, as if it had been sown 
with pearls, and it had to be hung upon a tree and swept 
with a broom. The sick woman whom I went to visit, and 
whom the messenger, who had ridden all the way to 
Sydney, reported to be near death, came and opened the 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ultathorne. 8 1 

door. She was quite well, and had only had a fit of ague. 
I stopped the night at a log hut in the neighbourhood, and 
was awakened the next morning by a very loud and extra- 
ordinary noise. Shrieks and wailings were predominant, 
whilst a certain harmonious discord in two parts ran 
through the shrill notes. I got up and inquired, and was 
told that it was tJic settler's clock ; a species of king- 
fisher that lives on snakes, against which it is protected 
by a ruff of feathers round its neck. Owing to its de- 
stroying so many poisonous snakes the bird is held sacred. 
From the extraordinary dialogue of sounds with which the 
male and female salute the rising sun, Governor King gave 
it the name of the laughing jackass, by which it is com- 
monly called. Returning from that most beautiful district 
at the ascent of Mount Keera, the forest was on fire on 
both sides : a not unusual occurrence after a high wind on- 
a very hot day. I stopped to examine if it was safe to 
proceed, and, looking to the horse's feet, found a kangaroo 
rat, which is the exact copy of the larger kangaroo in 
miniature, cowering under the horse's hind legs for protec- 
tion from the fire. On the same ascent is the celebrated 
hollow tree, to which I once conducted Bishop Folding 
for shelter from heavy rain : it kept us and our horses 
perfectly dry, and there was still room enough for two 
more horses. 

Breakfasting at Bathurst in a hotel after saying Mass, 
a young lady came to me in great distress of mind. She 
had but recently arrived alone in the Colony, and had 
brought me a letter of introduction. " Whatever are you 
doing," I asked, in some surprise, " in this remote place ? " 
Through her tears she told me that she had come with the 
viewof buying land; but that she was lodging with a Catholic 
farmer in the neighbourhood, who would not let her have 
her horse, and was trying to force her to marry his son. 
" Do you really mean to say that you have ridden all the way 


82 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullat/wrne. 

from Sydney, and have crossed those'lonely Blue Mountains 
without any guide or protector ?" So it was, however. "Go 
back at once to your lodgings," I said, "and tell the people 
that I shall be there in two hours' time." On my reaching 
the door the whole family came out. They were so sorry, 
but the lady's horse was loose in the bush, and could not 
be caught. I said to my man: "Put the lady's saddle on your 
horse ; then go back to the hotel, get another horse, and 
follow us as soon as you can over the Connoll Plains. As 
to you (turning to the settler), see you send that lady's horse 
and things to the Bathurst Hotel by to-morrow morning, 
or you will hear through the magistrate." No sooner was 
she mounted than I gave her a canter of some eight or ten 
miles, when I deposited her with a worthy surgeon and his 
wife, who kindly undertook to see her off to Sydney by 
the next public conveyance, and to send a trusty man with 
her horse. I thus lost a day in rescuing a distressed 
damsel from toils woven by her own folly. 

Wherever we got the loan of a court house up the 
country as a chapel I invariably found a Bible on the 
bench for administering oaths, on one back of which a 
paper was pasted the full length in the form of a cross ; 
most commonly consisting of two crossed pieces of coarse 
brown paper. When anyone had to be sworn, the clerk 
asked : " Are you Protestant or Catholic?" If Protestant, 
the book was opened and its pages kissed ; if Catholic, 
the brown paper cross was presented to be kissed. I wrote 
a letter to the Governor, pointing out both the indecency 
and the illegality of this practice, as well as the prejudice 
which it caused. By a circular to the magistrates the 
abuse was put an end to. 

At Sydney we did our outdoor work in gigs, as well to 
save time as on account of the heat. Besides the usual 
flock, forming a fourth of the population, we had to look 
after the prisoners' barracks, a huge jail to which the con- 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 83 

vict men were sent on their first landing, and to which they 
were returned from every part of the Colony for punish- 
ment. We had also to attend the felons' jail, where some 
forty executions took place yearly. We had to look after a 
large chain-gang upon an island in Sydney Cove. We had 
to visit a large convict hospital at Sydney ; another at 
Parramatta, fifteen miles off; and another at Liverpool, at 
a distance of twenty miles. Again there was the Benevo- 
lent Asylum, a refuge for decayed people ; for there was no 
Poor Law, nor was it needed in those days. The funerals, 
also, which were outside the city, required to be attended 
to at least every other day. Parramatta had to be served 
regularly from Sydney, and Liverpool from time to time. 
Father McEncroe and I had to bear the brunt of this work. 

Another field of occupation was examining and signing 
the papers of the large convict population. No one could 
obtain his ticket of leave, or his free pardon, or leave to 
marry, or the privilege of having wife and children sent out 
at Government expense, unless the document he presented 
was signed by a clergyman of his communion. Then there 
were duties for the Vicar-General as head of the depart- 
ment ; duties and correspondence with the Colonial Office, 
with the Surveyor's Office, with the Architect's Office, with 
the Audit Office, with the Treasury, and with the military, 
as well as with the Convict Department . 

There were grants of land to be obtained for churches, 
schools, or presbyteries ; payments to be arranged or certi- 
fied for priests or school teachers ; aid to be sought for new 
buildings ; arrangements made for duties to the military, 
as well as for the convicts ; favours to be solicited in 
exceptional cases that seemed to call for mercy ; special 
journeys in Government services by land and sea, such as 
attending executions. I always found the heads of de- 
partments friendly and obliging. The official dinners at 
Government House tended to strengthen this good under- 

84 Autobiography of Archbishop Uliathorne. 

standing ; and on those occasions his Excellency was 
always considerate in inviting the Protestant Archdeacon 
and Catholic Vicar-General on different days, so that each 
in his turn had the place of honour, and said grace. 



AFTER his arrival in the Colony, Sir Roger Therry opened 
a correspondence with Mr. Blount, then member for Stcyn- 
ing, on the religious wants of that distant penal settle- 
ment. Mr. Blount, in cor.sequence, made an energetic 
appeal to Parliament upon the injustice and cruelty of 
sending away the criminals of the country to the other 
extremity of the world without providing them with ade- 
quate provision for their religious instruction or require- 
ments. He dwelt with strong emphasis on the religious 
destitution of the Catholics. Meanwhile, Sir Richard 
Bourke was devising a systematic plan for meeting those 
wants, which ultimately took shape in his celebrated 
despatch to Lord Stanley, at that time Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, of date September 3Cth, 1833. About 
the same date I addressed a letter through the Governor 
to his Lordship, asking for four additional Catholic chap- 
lains. His Excellency begins his despatch by stating that 
he has received the order of the King in Council for 
dissolving the Protestant Church and School Corpora- 
tion ; but without any information of the views of His 
Majesty's Government as to the future maintenance and 
regulation of churches and schools within the Colony. 
His Excellency then points out that there are large bodies 
of Reman Catholics and Scotch Presbyterians, and that 
probably one- fifth of the whole population of the Colony 

86 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

were Catholics. "The charge on the public treasury next 
year would be : for the Church of England, 11,542 ; for 
the Scotch Presbyterians, 600 ; and for the Catholic 
chaplains and chapels, 1,500. The Catholics possess 
one large and handsome church at Sydney, not yet com- 
pleted, and to aid its completion the Government had 
given donations at different times amounting in all to 
1,200. The sum of 400, included in the 1,500, had 
been appropriated in aid of private subscriptions for erect- 
ing Catholic chapels at Campbell Town and Maitland. A 
chapel was begun in Campbell Town and in Parramatta 
some years ago ; but neither have been completed for want 
of funds. Such an unequal support cannot be acceptable 
to the colonists, who provide the funds from which the 
distribution is made." 

Sir Richard then proposed the following arrangements, 
to be applied equally to the Church of England, the 
Catholics, and the Scotch Presbyterians. That when- 
ever a congregation applies for the erection of a church 
and clergyman's residence, on their subscribing not less 
than 300 and up to 1,000, the Government shall give an 
equal subscription, the building to be invested in trustees. 
That where a hundred adults, including convict servants 
living within a reasonable distance, shall subscribe a 
declaration of their wish to attend that church or chapel, 
100 a year shall be paid out of the Treasury to the clergy- 
man of that church. That when two hundred adults so 
subscribe, 150 a year shall be paid; and that when five 
hundred adults so subscribe, 200 a year shall be paid ; 
beyond which no higher stipend shall be paid by the 
Government. Thus the three great national denomina- 
tions of England, Ireland, and Scotland were to be treated 
alike and on the same footing. Before the warrant was 
issued for payment by the Treasury, a certificate was 
required from the religious authority at the head of each 

Autobiography oj Archbishop Ullathorne. 87 

denomination that the clergymen were in pe'rformance of 
their duty. In the same despatch his Excellency was 
pleased to say a kind word of the Catholic Vicar-General, 
preliminary to stating that " he thought .200 a year too 
low for the office, and that it might advantageously be 
raised to 400, to enable him to visit frequently the 
chapels in the interior." Before this despatch was sent the 
Governor kindly gave me an opportunity, through Sir 
Roger Therry, of seeing it. I could only express my 
gratitude for a scheme so well calculated to meet all 
requirements, whilst it left ecclesiastical authority in such 
perfect freedom. Sir Richard had privately expressed his 
opinion that the result of this scheme would be to 
provide the Colony with all the clergy required, after 
which the Government, supported by popular opinion, 
would cease to give its support to any religious denomina- 
tion, and thus the several communions would support their 
own churches. To use his own phrase, " they would roll 
off State support like saturated leeches." And so it has 
come about. 

The scheme received the complete approval of the 
English Government, and was passed as an Act of 
Legislative Council on July 29th, 1836. About the same 
time a scheme of denominational education was arranged, 
in which the schools were supported by the Government, 
partly by a fixed annual sum, partly regulated by the 
numbers in attendance. 

On making my application the year previous for four 
additional priests 1 had more than one object in view. I 
strongly felt that a bishop was required for Australia. 
I had written some time before to Bishop Morris in the 
Mauritius, by one of the very few ships that ever went to 
that island, and had explained to him the very unsatis- 
factory state of things in Van Dieman's Land. I had also 
sent to him certain cases requiring dispensations, to which 


88 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

my special faculties did not extend. In reply I received a 
letter, stating that he was sending another priest to Van 
Dieman's Land, and that the faculties would come by 
another letter. The letter never came or the priest either. 
New Zealand was but one thousand miles distant, and 
though Protestant missions had been established there for 
a considerable time, no priest had ever reached it. Norfolk 
Island was a penal settlement, quite as far off, but no priest 
had ever visited it. Moreton Bay (now Queensland) was 
another penal settlement far to the north of Sydney, which 
had only been once visited by Father Therry. A new 
colony was also beginning to be formed in the extensive 
region which finally took the name of Victoria. 

Under the clear conviction that so large a responsibility 
required the immediate superintendence of a bishop, I 
wrote to the Superiors at Downside, explained the case, 
mentioned the application I had made to the Home 
Government for additional priests, and urged them to move 
for the appointment of a Bishop of Sydney. Lord Stanley 
had sent a copy of Sir Richard Bourke's despatch to Mr. 
Blount, and stated that he should consult Bishop Bramston 
as to the priests to be sent out ; and thus the way was 

In May, 1834, my old Novice-master, Father Folding, 
was appointed first Bishop of Sydney by Gregory XVI. 
He undertook to provide the other three priests applied for, 
and the four received the usual passage and outfit provided 
by Government. Meanwhile Lord Stanley had replied 
to my letter, not only approving my application, but 
adding that, should our wants increase, he would be happy 
to attend to any further recommendation supported by the 
Governor of the Colony. Not long after, Sir Richard 
Bourke received a letter from Lord Stanley, announcing 
the appointment of the four priests, one of whom, Dr. 
Folding, was invested with the dignity of a bishop. He 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 89 

then expressed his regret at my being superseded, and 
proposed that I should go to Hobart Town with the same 
stipend. When Sir Richard read the letter to me, I laughed, 
and said : " Your Excellency will understand our ways 
better than Lord Stanley. I should be of material use to 
the Bishop in the beginning. Let him take the stipend of 
400 a year which you recommended for the Vicar-General, 
and let me take the ordinary stipend of a priest." " Well/ 
he said, " there is no other man in the Colony who would 
have made such an offer." So I remained in my old 
position, and the Bishop received the 400 a year. My 
next point was to secure a proper residence for the Bishop 
before his arrival, a residence that would suitably represent 
his dignity as the head of the Catholics of Australia. I 
succeeded in renting a large and stately house, built for 
the first Protestant Archdeacon, and which at that time 
alone occupied the Vale of Woolomooloo, with an extensive 
domain attached to it. It joined the Sydney Park, in which 
stood his Cathedral.* 

* In the preface to a volume of sermons published in 1842, Dr. 
UHathorne alludes to the various places in which these sermons were 
delivered, contrasting their condition then with that in which they were 
at the above date : " They were preached," he says, " in the ' old court 
house ' in Sydney, where there is now a large Cathedral, a magnificent 
parish church, two chapels, and ten thousand Catholics ; the jail at 
Parramatta, where the only light except the candles on the altar came 
from the opening of a wooden shutter, which gave the priest a prospect 
of a busy tavern over the way, where now is a handsome church, 
flanked by a school and convent ; an old barn at Windsor, where is 
now a goodly church, with a congregation of eight hundred persons, 
besides free schools, a boarding school, and an orphanage ; an 
assembly room at Bathurst, beyond the Blue Mountains, placed over 
some livtry stables, now is a church ample for one thousand persons, 
and served by two priests ; in the police court of Maitland, which now 
contains two churches ; in a public-house on Patrick's Plains, or a room 
in the hospital at Liverpool, or the public inn at Appin, or the court 
house at Wollongong, all which places now have their churches and 
clergy." It is needless to say that the contrast here drawn out is in- 
definitely greater at the present day, when the Church in Australia has 
taken developments not di earned of when the above remarks were 

90 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

Meanwhile, having had to remove the priest from Windsor 
for six months, I had unexpectedly heavy Sunday duties 
to perform. I went to Windsor, a distance from Sydney 
of forty-five miles, and put up at a Protestant tavern. 
The next morning at six o'clock I had to say Mass, preach 
and administer the Sacraments, to attend the convict and 
military hospitals; then to ride to Parramatta, a distance of 
twenty miles, there to put up at the Woolpack Inn, and 
perform the same duties in the military guard house, a long 
dark room without a single window, erected over the prison 
of a chain-gang. The only light I had was from the 
opening of a wooden shutter at the back of the temporary 
altar. Before me ^1 had the prospect of a busy public- 
house. When I turned to the people I got a Rembrandt 
view of the first row, whilst the rest of the congregation 
were buried in darkness. On one occasion two Catholic 
ladies were on a visit at the Governor's country residence. 
On Sunday they prepared to come to Mass. The Governor 
and his suite insisted that they could not appear in such a 
place. They insisted that they must go. So an aide-de- 
camp was sent to the barracks to secure two steady Catholic 
sergeants to kneel behind them for their protection. After 
this duty I attended the military and convict hospitals, about 
a mile from each other, and then to breakfast at the inn. 
After which I rode to Sydney, fifteen miles further, to preach 
in the evening. The next morning by eleven o'clock came 
on the sense of fatigue, from which I recovered by lying for 
a couple of hours on a sofa with a light book. On one of 
these occasions at Windsor, I had a sick call after night 
came on, which was a couple of miles beyond the river 
Hawkesbury. When I and my man reached the river, 
there was no getting the ferry-boat across for a very long 
time. The convict ferry-men were sleeping in their hut 
on the other side of the river, and were unwilling to hear 
with all our shouting. It was a cold, sharp night in the 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 91 

open air, and we got back to the inn at a quarter to twelve. 
I was hungry, with fasting till one o'clock the next day 
before me. Everyone else was in bed, so I searched all 
about the house till I found a piece of bread and a jar of 
pickled walnuts, of which I made a hasty supper before 
midnight, which I had to regret the next day. 

Father McEncroc generally attended the executions at 
Sydney, and prepared the condemned for death. It is a 
fact that two-thirds of the Protestant criminals sought the 
aid of the Catholic priests after their condemnation to the 
gallows. This at last produced such an impression that 
the Protestant Archdeacon printed and circulated a thou- 
sand copies of a pamphlet on the subject, in which, among 
other things, he said that this fact ought not to awaken 
any surprise. That these poor creatures had very little 
religion, and that the soothing ways of the priests, and 
their less guarded system of confession, acted as a fasci- 
nation on criminals in their last moments. A propos of 
these and similar remarks, I remember having been sum- 
moned to a bushranger immediately after his sentence. 
My first words to him were : " You are not a Catholic 
why have you sent for me ? " He was a finely-formed 
young man, with an intelligent face, and in full vigour of 
life. With tears he replied : " Sir, I want to tell you what 
is on my mind ; and if I tell it to a parson he will tell it 
again." I felt the Archdeacon's pamphlet would do more 
good than harm, so I took no notice of it. 

Two men, after their condemnation, were sent by sea to 
Newcastle, to be executed on the scene of their crimes. 
It was for beating an overseer to death in the midst of a 
chain-gang employed in making a breakwater. One of 
them, though not a Catholic, applied for a priest, and I 
went with them a distance of about seventy miles from 
Sydney. On arrival at the jail at Newcastle I was told 
by the Governor of the jail that the Protestant chaplain 

92 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathornc. 

particularly desired to see me. I thought it singular, be- 
cause, though a stranger to me, he had recently written an 
attack upon me in a Wesleyan magazine. On his entrance 
he was embarrassed, and told me that as he had to attend 
one of the men, and this kind of duty was new to him, I 
should greatly oblige him if I would give him some 
guidance what to do. I gave him such hints as I thought 
would be useful to the poor man, and he left me with 
thanks. The execution was to take place early next 
morning on a promontory, upon which a lofty scaffold 
was erected, that it might be visible to a thousand men, 
forming a chain-gang. These men were dressed, as usual, 
in alternate brown and yellow clothing of frieze, were all 
in irons, and were guarded by a company of soldiers. The 
execution took place soon after sunrise, because the Deputy 
Sheriff and executioner had afterwards to proceed up the 
river to hang some blacks. I was therefore very early at 
the jail. We had to walk with the condemned about a 
mile to the scaffold, and it was blowing a furious gale of 
wind from the sea. The Anglican clergyman again wished 
to see me. He asked what I should do on the way and 
on the scaffold ? I told him that my poor man was well 
instructed, that on the way I should repeat a litany which 
he would answer, and I should occasionally address words 
to him suited to his state. " Very good, Sir ; and what 
will you do on the scaffold ?" "The man," I replied, " is 
well taught to offer his life to God for his sins, which he 
will do with me in the words I have taught him. And 
when the executioner is quite ready for the drop, he will 
give me a sign, and I shall descend the ladder and pray 
for his soul." " Very good, Sir, will you please to walk 
first with your man ?" " Certainly." He followed in a 
nervous condition, and when we reached the scaffold each 
knelt at the foot of a very tall ladder. The wind blew 
tremendously, and sent my ladder down, falling across the 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 93 

back of my Anglican friend ; but I seized him by the 
coat laps, and just saved him from the descending blow. 
The ladders were then tied, and I mounted first. What a 
spectacle were those upturned faces on that desolate rocky 
promontory ! The scaffold shook in the wind, and I had 
to put one foot against the framework and to hold the 
man from being blown off, speaking to him, or rather 
praying with him, whilst the executioners made their 
preparations. The young man was bent on speaking to 
his comrades below, but I would not let him : for such 
speeches at the dying moment are commonly exhibitions 
of vanity. He obeyed me, I pressed his hand, and he was 
cast off. After all was over I walked back with my 
Anglican friend, who said to me : " Sir, this is a painful 
and humiliating duty. Had I known that I should be 
subject to it I should never have taken Orders." 

About this time I received a letter from Father Connolly, 
asking for a priest to visit Hobart Town ; and after weigh- 
ing the matter I thought it best to go myself. I took, 
as was my wont, the first vessel that offered, and it proved 
to be a small coasting schooner. The voyage was of some 
eight hundred miles, and the vessel was heavily laden. I 
found three women and seven children cooped in the small 
cabin, and no one to talk to except a young artist. We 
encountered a heavy gale with adverse winds off Bass' 
Straits. The small craft laboured heavily under the 
storm, the bulwarks were stove in, an anchor was un- 
shipped, and several casks of brandy were washed over- 
board. We drove to leeward some hundred miles in 
twenty-four hours. The women and children were in a 
sad state, with scarcely room in which to move. At last, 
after some days in this critical state, the wind moderated and 
veered round, and we ran into port. I found things much 
as I had left them, and after a fortnight returned to Sydney. 
My return voyage was in a large Scotch ship from India 

94 Autobiography oj ArcJibisJwp U licit home. 

manned by Lascars. We reached Sydney Heads in the 
night, and could get no pilot off, though we fired gun after 
gun. The captain had never been there before. How- 
ever, I was able to point out where the danger lay, and 
we ran through the Heads and came to anchor. 



IN the year 1834 a conspiracy was formed among the 
convicts in the penal settlement of Norfolk Island, to 
overmaster the troops and take possession of the island. 
A larger number than usual pretended sickness, and were 
placed in hospital for examination. Those employed at 
the farm armed themselves with instruments of husbandry, 
and the gang proceeding to their work were to turn upon 
the guard. The guard was assailed by the working gang, 
those who had feigned sickness broke their chains and 
rushed to join their comrades, but the men from the farm 
arrived too late. In the skirmish which ensued one or 
two men were shot and a dozen were dangerously wounded, 
of whom six or seven died. A great number of men were 
implicated in the conspiracy. A Commission was sent 
from Sydney to try them, and thirty-one men were con- 
demned to death. After the return of the Commission 
the Governor sent for me, told me that a new Commission 
was about to proceed to Norfolk Island, that there were 
several men to be executed from the last Commission, that 
he had engaged an Anglican clergyman to go for the 
occasion, that I should oblige him if I also would consent 
to go, and that we should receive hospitality at the mansion 
of the Commandant. 

As the Government brig which conveyed us was limited in 
its accommodation, the captain, a Catholic, kindly gave rm 

g6 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathornc. 

his cabin. Our voyage lasted a fortnight, during which time 
I had several private conversations with my Anglican com- 
panion. He was of Cambridge University, was an amiable 
man, but held some peculiar doctrines. For example, he 
maintained that the efficacy of baptism depended on the 
prayers of the parents and sponsors. In a special case, he 
told me he had sent away the applicants without giving 
baptism, because he did not think them in a becoming 
state to pray for the child. I asked him if he had taken 
care to have that child baptised afterwards ; he replied 
that he did not think it necessary. I cannot but think that 
one of our conversations had a material influence on his 
conduct on the island. My remarks in substance were to 
this effect : " I cannot understand how you gentlemen profess 
to be healers of souls, when you know nothing about your 
patients. You seem to me like a medical man who goes 
into the wards of a hospital, takes a look round, directs 
that all shall be clean and well aired, and then prescribes 
one and the same medicine to all the patients. Now we 
examine the condition of our patients one by one, and give 
the remedy required by each." I think the result of this 
conversation will be seen later on. 

I have given a description of Norfolk Island in my 
pamphlet entitled "The Catholic Mission in Australia," 
which may perhaps be inserted here. 

" Norfolk Island is about a thousand miles from Sydney. It is 
small, only about twenty-one miles in circumference ; of volcanic 
origin, and one of the most beautiful spots in the universe. 
Rising abruptly on all sides but one from the sea, clustering 
columns of basalt spring out of the water, securing at intervals its 
endurance with the strong architecture of God. That one side 
presents a low sandy level on which is placed that penal settlement 
which is the horror of men. It is approachable only by boats 
through a narrow bar in the reef of coral, which, visible here, 
invisibly encircles the island. Except the military guard, and the 
various officers and servants of Government,none but the prisoners 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 97 

arc permitted to reside on the island ; nor, unless in case of great 
emergency, can any ships, but those of Government showing the 
secret signals, be permitted to approach. The land consists of 
a series of hills and valleys, curiously interfolded, the green ridges 
rising above one another, until they reach the shaggy sides and 
crowning summit of Mount Pitt, at the height of 3,000 feet above 
the level of the sea. 

The establishment consists of a spacious quadrangle of buildings 
for the prisoners, the military barracks, and a series of offices in 
two ranges. A little further beyond, on a green mound of Nature's 
beautiful making, rises the mansion of the Commandant, with its 
barred windows, defensive cannon, and pacing sentry. Straying 
some distance along a footpath, we come upon the cemetery closed 
in on three sides by close thick melancholy groves of the tear- 
dropping manchineel, whilst the fourth is open to the restless sea. 
The graves are numerous and recent most of the tenants having 
reached by an untimely end the abode to which they now con- 
tribute their hapless remains and hapless story. I have myself 
witnessed fifteen descents into those houses of mortality, and in 
every one lies a hand of blood. Their lives were brief, and as 
agitated and restless as the waves which now break at their feet, 
and whose dying sound is their only requiem. 

Passing on by a ledge cut in the cliff that hangs over the 
resounding shore, we suddenly turn into an amphitheatre of hills, 
which rise all round until they close in a circle of the blue 
heavens above their sides being thickly clothed with curious 
wild shrubs, wild flowers, and wild grapery. Passing the hasty 
brook and long and slowly ascending, we again reach the open 
varied ground. Here a tree crested mound, there a plantation of 
pines ; and yonder below a ravine descending into the very bowels 
of the earth, and covered with an intricacy of dark foliage inter- 
luminated with chequers of sunlight until it opens a receding vista 
to the blue sea. And now the path closes, so that the sun is 
almost shut out ; whilst giant creepers shoot, twist, and contort 
themselves upon your path, beautiful pigeons, lories, parrots, 
parroquets, and other birds, rich and varied in plumage, spring 
up at your approach. We now reach a valleyof exquisite beauty in 
the middle of which, where the winding, gurgling stream is jagged 
in its course, spring up the type of loveliness a cluster of some 
eight fern trees, the finest of their kind, which with different incli- 
nations rise up to the height of fifteen or twenty feet, a clear black 
mossy stem from the crown of which is shot out on every side one 
long arching fern leaf, the whole suggesting the idea of a clump of 


98 Autobiography of ArcltbisJiop Ullathorne. 

Chinese umbrellas. Ascending again through the dark forest, we 
find rising on every side, amongst other strange forest trees, the 
gigantic pine of Norfolk Island, which ascending a clean stem of 
vast circumference to some twelve feet shoots out a coronal of dark 
boughs each in shape like the feathers of the ostrich, indefinably 
prolonged until rising, with clear intervals, horizontal stage above 
stage, the great pyramid cuts with its point the clear ether at the 
height of two hundred feet. Through these we at length reach 
the crown of Mount Pitt, whence the tout ensemble in so small a 
space is indescribable, of rock, forest, valley, cornfield, islets, sea birds, 
land birds, sunshine, and sea. Descending, we take a new path to 
find new varieties. Emerging after a while from the deep gloom of 
the forest, glades and openings lie on each side, where among 
many plants and trees the guava and lemon prevail. The fern 
tree springs gracefully out, and is outstripped by the beautiful 
palmetto raising " its light shaft of orient mould " from above the 
verdant level, and at the height of twenty-five feet spreading abroad 
in the clear air a cluster of bright green fans. In other places the 
parasite creepers and climbers rise up in columns, shoot over arch 
after arch, and again descend in every variety of Gothic fantasy. 
Now they form a long high wall, which is dense and impenetrable, 
and next comes tumbling down a cascade of green leaves, frothed 
over with the white convolvulus. Our way at last becomes an 
interminable closed in vista of lemon trees, forming overhead a 
varied arcade of green, gold, and sunlight. The orange trees 
once crowded the island as thickly, but were cut down by the 
wanton tyranny of a former Commandant, as being too ready and 
too great a luxury for the convict. Stray over the farms, the 
yellow hulm bends with the fat of corn. Enter the gardens, 
especially that delicious retreat, " Orange Vale " ; there by the broad 
breasted English oak grows the delicate cinnamon tree the tea, 
the coffee, the sugar plant, the nutritious arrowroot, the banana 
with its long weeping streamers and creamy fruit, the fig, all 
tropical fruits in perfection, and English vegetables in gigantic 
growth. The air is most pure, the sky most brilliant. In the 
morning the whole is drenched with dew. As the sun comes out 
of his bed of amber, and shoots over a bar of crimson rays, it is 
one embroidery of the pearl, the ruby, and the emerald ; as the 
same sun at eventide slants his yellow rays between the pines and 
the mountain, they show like the bronzed spires of some vast 
cathedral flooded in golden light.' 7 

All who have seen Norfolk Island agree in saying that it 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 99 

is the most beautiful place in the creation, but it is very 
difficult of access. There is no harbour, and the only ap- 
proach to the settlement is by boats over a bar in the 
coral reef that girdles the island, and which can only be 
crossed in calm weather. If the weather is unfavourable 
for landing at the settlement the vessel must proceed to 
the opposite side of the island, and there put off a boat, 
which lands the passengers on a ridge of rock that is 
slippery with wet seaweed. We had to adopt this last 
course on the present occasion. 

Reflecting in my own mind that this was the first time 
a clergyman had ever visited the island, I resolved to be 
the first to land, for which I had grave reasons, which will 
appear directly. We were told to be ready to jump one 
by one, as the boat approached the rocks, as the oars would 
be at once reversed to prevent the boat being staved by 
the rock. I got into the stern sheets and sprang the first, 
when back went the boat. Major Anderson was there 
with his tall figure, at the head of a company of soldiers, 
drawn up in honour of the Commission. Before anyone 
else had landed, I walked straight up to the Commandant, 
and after paying my respects asked leave to go at once to 
the prison where the condemned men were confined. I 
requested to be furnished with a list of those who were to 
be reprieved and of those who were to be executed. These 
were kindly furnished me, as they had just reached his 
hand from the vessel. I then asked how many days would 
be allowed for preparation of the poor men who were to 
die ; and after kindly asking me my thoughts on the sub- 
ject, five days were allowed. A soldier was then appointed 
to guide me to the prison. We had to cross the island, 
which was about seven miles long by four in breadth. 
The rest of the passengers, when landed, proceeded to 
Government House. 

And now I have to record the most heartrending scene 

ioo Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

that I ever witnessed. The prison was in the form of a 
square, on one side of which stood a row of low cells, 
covered with a roof of shingles. The turnkey unlocked 
the first door and said : " Stand aside, Sir." Then came 
forth a yellow exhalation, the produce of the bodies of the 
men confined therein. The exhalation cleared off, and I 
entered and found five men chained to a traversing-bar. 


I spoke to them from my heart, and after preparing them 
and obtaining their names [ announced to them who 
were reprieved from death, and which of them were to die 
after five days had passed. I thus went from cell to cell 
until I had seen them all. It is a literal fact that each 
man who heard his reprieve wept bitterly, and that each 
man who heard of his condemnation to death went down 
on his knees, with dry eyes, and thanked God. Among 
the thirteen who were condemned to execution three only 
were Catholics, but four of the others put themselves under 
my care. I arranged to begin my duties with them at six 
o'clock the next morning, and got an intelligent Catholic 
overseer appointed to read at certain times under my 
direction for those who could not read; whilst I was 
engaged with the others. Night had now fallen, and I 
proceeded to Government House, where I found a brilliant 
assembly, in strange contrast with the human miseries 
in which my soul had just been steeped. It may seem 
strange to the inexperienced that so many men should 
prefer death to life in that dreadful penal settlement. 
Let me, then, say that all the criminals who were executed 
in New South Wales were imbued with a like feeling. I 
have heard it from several in their last moments, and 
Father McEncroe, in a letter to me, which I quoted to Sir 
William Molesworth's Committee on Transportation, 
affirmed that he had attended seventy-four executions in 
the course of four years, and that the greater number of 
criminals had, on their way to the scaffold, thanked God 
that they were not going to Norfolk Island. 

Autobiography of Archbishop U II at home. 101 

There were two thousand convicts on the island, all of 
them men, all retransported for new crimes, after having 
been first transported to New South Wales. Many of them 
had, at one time or other, received sentence of death. They 
were a desperate body of men, made more desperate by 
their isolation from the outer world ; by being deprived of 
access to all stimulants ; by the absence of hope ; by the 
habitual prospect of the encircling sea that isolated 
them from other lands by the distance of a thousand 
miles ; and by the absence of all religious or other 
instruction or consolation. Besides the criminals, only the 
military force and officials with their wives were permitted 
on the island. No ships, except those despatched by 
Government, and exhibiting the secret signals, were 
allowed to come near the land. Everything was on the 
alert, as in a state of siege. I had an opportunity of wit- 
nessing this. I was walking with the Commandant in a 
wood ; he was conversing with secret spies he had among 
the convicts, when suddenly a shot was heard from a 
distance. Off went the shots of the sentries in all directions. 
The Commandant ran off to his post, and I after him. The 
troops were moving in quick time to their stations ; and 
then came the inquiry. To our relief, it turned out that 
a young officer, just arrived by our vessel and ignorant of 
the rules, had been amusing himself by firing at a bird. 
But what an ear-wigging the young officer got ! The rule 
was that no shot be fired on the island except to give alarm. 
A ludicrous scene occurred in the Court when the shot was 
fired. The Commissioner was sitting with a military jury, 
but the moment the gun was heard, the officers and soldiers 
rushed out to their posts, leaving the judge and the two 
lawyers alone with the prisoners on trial. 

So sharply were all on the alert, for there had been three 
attempts by the convicts at different times to take the 
island, that I never ventured to move after nightfall with- 

IO2 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

out having a soldier with me to answer the challenges. A 
little incident that I witnessed made the sentries all the 
sharper. I was walking in the evening with the Com- 
mandant, when a sentry at some distance from us pre- 
sented arms instead of giving the challenge. The old 
soldier, who had been a warrior from his seventeenth 
year, and had been in fifty battles, from Alexandria to 
Waterloo, was a martinet, and was up to the sentry in a 
moment. " Why did you not challenge ?" " I knew the 
Commandant, and presented arms." " You deserve a court- 
martial. Anyone might have put on my clothes. You ought 
to have challenged, and if I did not come up at the second 
call and give the password, it was your duty to fire at me." 
I spent the first week in preparing the men for death, 
and inquiring into the condition of the convicts generally. 
This took me daily from six in the morning to six at 
night. Then came the executions. The Commandant had 
received orders that all the convicts, to the number of 
two thousand, should witness them. As he had only three 
companies of infantry, some contrivance was required to 
prevent a rush of the convicts on the troops, as well as to 
conceal their number. Several small, but strong, stockades 
were erected and lined with soldiers, between the scaffold 
and the standing ground of the convicts, whilst the rest of 
the force was kept in reserve close by, but out of sight. 
The executions took place half one day and half the next. 
One thousand convicts divided into two bodies were 
brought on the ground the first day, and the other 
thousand on the second day. Thus all passed off in 
tranquillity. I had six of my men put together in one cell 
and five in another,* one of which parties was executed each 

* This implies that the writer had charge of eleven convicts. He 
has stated above that seven of those condemned to die had placed 
themselves in his hands. It is to be supposed that the additional four 
must have been of the number of those condemned by the earlier 

Autobiography of ArcJibishop Ullathorne. 103 

day, and executed in one group, whilst the Protestants were 
executed in another. My men asked as a special favour, 
the night before, to be allowed some tobacco, as with that 
they could watch and pray all night. This indulgence was 

When the irons were struck off and the death warrant 
read, they knelt down to receive it as the will of God ; 
and next, by a spontaneous act, they humbly kissed the 
feet of him who brought them peace. After the executioner 
had pinioned their arms they thanked the jailers for all 
their kindness, and ascended the ladders with light steps, 
being almost excitedly cheerful. I had a method of pre- 
paring men for their last moments, by associating all that 
I wished them to think and feel with the prayer, " Into 
Thy hands I commend my spirit ; Lord Jesus, receive my 
soul." I advised them when on the scaffold to think of 
nothing else and to say nothing else. The Catholics had a 
practice of sewing large black crosses on their white caps 
and shirts. These men had done so. As soon as they 
were on the scaffold, to my surprise, they all repeated the 
prayer I had taught them, aloud in a kind of chorus 
together, until the ropes stopped their voices for ever. 
This made a great impression on all present, and was much 
talked of afterwards. 

As I returned from this awful scene, wending my way 
between the masses of convicts and the military, all in 
dead silence, I barely caught a glance of their suspended 
bodies. I could not bring myself to look at them. Poor 
fellows ! They had given me their whole hearts, and were 
fervently penitent. They had known little of good or of 
their souls before that time. Yet all of them had either 
fathers or mothers, sisters or brothers, to whom they had 
last words and affections to send, which had been dictated 
to me the day before. The second day was but a repetition 
of the first. The Protestant convicts were executed after 

IO4 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

the Catholics. The Anglican clergyman had three to 
attend to each day. Then came the funerals, the Catholics 
at a separate time from the Protestants. A selected number 
of the convicts followed each coffin to the most beautiful 
cemetery that the eye of man could possibly contemplate. 
Churchyard Gully is at some distance from the settlement, 
in a ravine that opens upon the sea, being encircled on the 
land side with dark thickets of manchineel, backed by the 
bright-leaved forest trees, among which lemon and guava 
trees were intermingled. Beyond there the ravine ascended 
and was clasped in by the swelling hills covered with wild 
vines and grapes. Above all this was a crown of beautiful 
trees, beyond which arose Mount Pitt to a height of 3,000 
feet, covered with majestic pines of the kind peculiar to 
Norfolk Island. Arrived at the graves, I mounted a little 
eminence, with the coffins before me and the convicts 
around me ; and being extraordinarily moved, I poured 
out the most awful, mixed with the most tender, conjura- 
tions to these unfortunate men, to think of their immortal 
souls, and the God above them, Who waited their repent- 
ance. Then followed the funeral rites. So healthful was 
the climate, that all who lay in the cemetery had been 
executed, except one child, the son of a Highland officer, 
over whose tomb was the touching inscription : " Far from 
the land of his fathers." 

After the return of the procession, it was found that the 
men who composed it were sore and annoyed. The 
executioner had followed the coffins as though chief 
mourner, at which they were indignant. Yet the man did 
it in simplicity, and had a friend among the dead. He was 
a man whom Sir Walter Scott would have liked to have 
had a sketch of. A broad-chested, sturdy-limbed figure, 
broad-faced and bull-necked ; who had won his freedom 
by taking two bushrangers single handed at Port Maquar- 
rie. But in the struggle he had received a cut from a 

Autobiography of Archbishop UUatkorne. 105 

hanger, across the mouth, that opened it to the ears, and 
left a scar over his face that was alternately red and 
blue. Yet he had good-natured eyes. Whilst pinioning 
the arms of one of the men, he suddenly recognised 
him, and exclaimed : " Why, Jack, is that you ? " " Why, 
Bill," was the answer, " is that you ?" He then shook his 
old friend by the hand, and said : " Well, my dear fellow, 
it can't be helped." 

After the executions I devoted the rest of the time to 
the convicts, instructed all who came together for the 
purpose, and got a man to read to them, whilst I heard 
about one hundred confessions. Many of them had not 
seen a priest for some twenty years, others since they had 
left their native country. I had also duties at the military 
barracks, where I said a second Mass on the Sundays. 
As Major Anderson was much engaged with his despatches 
for the returning ship, Mrs. Anderson, a most kind and 
accomplished lady, on my return from my long labours, 
seeing me worn and exhausted, used to have horses and 
a groom in readiness, and rode with me herself through 
the beautiful island before dinner. She saw that my 
burden was heavy, and wished to give me a diversion. I 
shall never forget the extreme kindness of these excellent 
people. They saw their other guests in the course of the 
day, but I could only see them in the evening. The 
hospitable dinners and social converse at the large evening 
parties, however agreeable, completed my exhaustion ; so 
that one night, towards the end of my visit, I arose in a 
state of extreme sickness, with my spine as cold as an 
icicle. However, I rallied the next day and completed the 
work before me. But when I got on board the vessel I 
was in that state of exhaustion that the powers of my 
mind were completely suspended, and I felt little beyond 
the sense of existence. If I took a book up I could see 
the letters, but not the sense, and moved as in a dream. 

io6 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 

By the time, however, that we reached Sydney, in the 
course of some fourteen days, my powers had gradually 
returned. It was not merely the mind, but the feelings, 
that had been greatly drawn upon. 

Before the executions the Commandant asked me pri- 
vately, if 1 had any reason to believe that there was a 
conspiracy to escape from the prison. To which I replied : 
" My dear Major, of what I know of those men, I know 
less than of that of which I know nothing." He replied : " I 
beg your pardon, I did not think of it." I was not sur- 
prised at the question, for my Anglican friend had repeated 
at table the histories that he had got from his men : to 
the surprise of his auditors, who did not conceal the dis- 
pleasure it gave them. But after the executions wereover 
I drew the Major aside and told him that the men had 
authorised me to let him know that there had been a plan 
for escape. That they had got a piece of a watch-spring 
concealed in the heel of one of them, had passed it by an 
agency from cell to cell, and had sawn all the fetters ready 
for snapping ; and that their plan was to mount one on the 
back of another, to tear off the shingles from the roof, and 
so escape in the night to the thick bush, hoping in time to 
get a boat into their power. But on the arrival of the 
clergy they gave it up. " And now," I said, " if you will go 
and examine the fetters you will find them sawn and filled 
up with rust and bread crumbs." On going to examine, 
the turnkey was confident that the fetters were sound, and 
tinkled them with their keys. But the Commandant said, 
" I am sure of my information ;" and on closer examination 
it was found that they were all cut. 

My last act before leaving the island is worth recording, 
as an example that the most desperate men ought not to be 
despaired of. The Major at breakfast told me of a case 
that gave him a great deal of solicitude. Among the 
convicts was one who was always in a round of crime 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 107 

or punishment. He was one of those who had been re- 
prieved, and yet was already again under punishment. I 
asked if he were a Catholic. He thought so. " But 
how can I see him : we are just about to sail?" " If you 
will see that man," he said, " I will send a message on 
board that they are not to sail until I have been on board ; 
and I will send you notice at the last moment." I found 
the man chained in a cell with three others, and I asked 
him to come out awhile, as I wanted to speak with him. 
He was a tall, strong-built man, and I saw he was one of 
those proud spirits that would not seem to cave in before 
his comrades. 1 told him the turnkey would take off his 
fetters if he would only come out. He replied : " Sir, you 
are a kind gentleman, and have been good to them that 
suffered, but I'd rather not." I turned to the others and 
said, " Now, men, isn't he a big fool ? You would give any- 
thing to get out of this hot place ; but because I am a 
priest, he thinks you will take him for a softy, and chaff 
him, if he talks to me. I have got something to tell him, 
and then he can do as he likes. He knows I can't eat 
him. What do you say ? " " Why, Sir, you are such a 
kind gentleman, he ought to go out when you ask him." 
" And you won't jeer him as a softy because he talks with 
me?" "Oh, no, Sir." " Well, take off his irons." I wanted 
to get him into a private room, but he would not go out of 
eyeshot of the other men, and nothing could induce him. 
I did not like to shut the door on them, lest it might be 
taken for a trick. I said : " Let's go into the turnkey's 
room." No, he would not. So we walked up and down 
the yard, with a sentry on each side a short distance off. 
I found he was a Catholic, made an earnest appeal to 
his soul ; but he held himself still, and I seemed to make 
no way. A sailor came up : " Anchor short hove, Sir. 
Governor waiting in the boat." I felt bitter : it was the 
first time I had found a soul inaccessible. I threw up my 

io8 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

arms, looked him full in the face, and poured out the most 
terrible denunciations upon him for neglecting the one 
opportunity of saving his soul : for I never expected that 
he would have a chance of seeing a priest there again. But 
though I did not know it until fifteen months afterwards 
his heart was changed. As soon as I left he asked to be' 
put in a cell by himself, got a turnkey, who was a Catholic , 
to lend him books, and became a new man. In going on 
board I said to the Commandant : " You must not mistake 
that man. There is nothing mean about him. He would 
not tell a lie. Under other circumstances he would be a hero 
But if he says he will thrash an overseer, he will do it. And 
if the man resists he will kill him." The hint was taken. 
After a time one chain was taken off him, then the other. 
And on my return, after fifteen months, I met him smiling 
as he worked among the flowers in the Government garden ; 
and he proved most useful among his fellow-convicts. He 
ultimately got his liberty, and became a respectable man.* 
Soon after my return to Sydney I placed the state of 
the convicts at Norfolk Island before Sir Richard Bourke, 
and strongly represented the great evil of their being 
locked up at night in the dark, without any division be- 
tween the men or any watchman to control their conduct. 
I earnestly pointed out the necessity of partitions, lights, 
and watchmen under proper superintendence. But that 
was not effected until long afterwards, when the representa- 
tions of Bishop Wilson prevailed. But I put my attempt 

* A singular circumstance in connection with this story deserves 
recording. As Bishop Ullathorne was in the act of penning the above 
lines a letter reached him written by the very person referred to 
therein, and relating his subsequent history. After alluding to the 
last occasion on which they had met, the writer went on to say that 
after recovering his liberty he had settled in another colony, where he 
had gradually risen to a position of some eminence, and was bringing 
up his family in various professions. He had remained faithful in 
the practice of religion, and acknowledged all the happiness of his 
changed life as due to the impressions he had received from Dr 

Autobiography of Archbishop UllatJiornc. 109 

on record in my evidence before Sir William Molesworth's 
Committee in 1838. 

At this time an effort was made to upset the denomi- 
national system of education, and to establish in its place 
a general system with the Bible as a prominent class-book. 
A public meeting was called in the great room of Pultney 
Hotel, presided over by a certain philanthropist named 
Backhouse, who was visiting the Colonies partly on a bene- 
volent expedition, partly as a botanical explorer. The 
Governor did not approve of the scheme, and hinted that 
he should like Sir Roger Therry and myself to oppose it, 
which we were already prepared to do. The Chief Justice, 
Sir Francis Forbes, was also in opposition. The platform 
wasoccupied with Anglican clergymen, Dissenting ministers, 
and their friends. The moment we appeared in their front 
a commotion took place among them ; they put their 
heads together, and it was announced that no one should 
speak for longer than a quarter of an hour. I arose im- 
mediately after this announcement, and stated that a public 
meeting demanded full and free discussion ; that I repre- 
sented a large interest in question ; and that a quarter of 
an hour would barely enable me to state the case, without 
leaving time to argue it. One after the other we gave 
them their quarter of an hour, until they were perplexed 
what to do, when Sir Roger Therry proposed as a resolu- 
tion, that the scheme was not adapted to the wants and 
wishes of the people. This their own Secretary, a Dis- 
senting minister, got up and seconded. So it passed, and 
we retired to another room, when we heard a great clamour, 
for they attacked the Dissenting minister as an enemy of 
the Bible. But what could the poor man do ? They 
wanted to get rid of us, and it was the only way open. I 
published a pamphlet entitled, " On the Use and Abuse of 
the Scriptures," and the new education scheme died away. 



ON September I3th, 1835, the Right Rev. Father Bede 
Folding, Bishop of Hieroccesarea, Vicar-Apostolic of New 
Holland and Van Dieman's Land, arrived in Sydney, ac- 
companied by three priests and four ecclesiastical students. 
He had stayed for a time in Hobart Town, where he was 
received by Governor Sir George Arthur with marked 
courtesy and hospitality. He found things in the same 
state in which I had found them ; but left there a Bene- 
dictine priest, the Rev. Father Cottram, and an ecclesiastical 
student, afterwards Dean Kenny, to open and teach a 
school for the people. 

The Bishop's house was ready for his reception. The 
Catholic population received him with great joy, and pre- 
sented him with a handsome carriage and pair as expressive 
of their wish to maintain him in his dignity. He was well 
received by the Governor and the chief officials, to most 
of whom he was the bearer of letters. He received a 
stipend of 400 a year, and I retained mine and remained 
to assist him in my former office. 

Everything in the Church now began to assume larger 
proportions. The Bishop took a position which gradually 
raised the tone and spirit of the whole Catholic body. We 
had pontifical functions with as much solemnity as our 
resources could command, which much impressed the people, 
to whom they were new. Then the vast body of the 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 111 

Catholics, who had never been confirmed, received this 
Sacrament. As the Bishop's house was large, he turned 
half of it into a boarding school, over which I presided 
for a time. Thus was begun a solicitude for raising the 
sons of the settlers who were acquiring property, that they 
might take their suitable position. As the Bishop was 
inexperienced in official correspondence, and as the work 
began to increase, I continued that duty under his direc- 
tion to the end. When resident, later, at Parramatta, I 
rode once or twice a week over to Sydney, to perform this 
duty under the eye of the Bishop, and to call at the 
Government offices when business required it. I had also 
to look after the completion of the church begun at Mait- 
land, and to start another at Parramatta. I had the assist- 
ance of the Government architect in devising the plans. 
But what was my surprise, on arriving one day at Maitland, 
to find that without my knowledge Father Therry had 
been there, and had doubled the number of windows in 
the walls. This was one of his singularities, to put as 
many windows in a building as the walls would allow of, 
without any consideration for the intense glare of heated 
light. Thus in the old Cathedral of Sydney he put seventy 
large windows, two rows in one wall. At Campbell Town 
his church was like a cage. At Maitland he spoiled what 
would have been a well-proportioned nave in the old lancet 
style. His taste in architecture was for what he called 
opes ; if a plan was brought to him, his first question was : 
" How many more opes would it admit of?" He could not 
understand the principle of adapting the light of a building 
to the climate. 

Riding at Maitland along the fertile banks of the river 
Hunter, it was impossible not to admire the beauty of those 
primitive forests and the fertile abundance produced by the 
deep and rich alluvial soil. Then there were the varied 
notes of the birds. I was riding through the wood with 

112 Autobiography of ArclibisJiop U Hat J ionic. 

Mr. Walker, the chief supporter of our religion in that 
locality, when I heard at some distance first a whistle, then 
the crack of a whip, then the reverberation of the lash. I 
asked: "What road is that over there?" "There is no 
road," he replied. u But I heard a man driving, and there 
again." " Oh ! that's the coachman." " But a coachman 
must have a road." " The coachman's a bird," said he; and 
a bird it was, exactly imitating the whistle of a coachman 
and the crack and lashing of his whip. Then the bell bird 
rang its silver bell, and another species cried like a child in 
trouble, whilst the flocks of parrots made a croaking din, 
and flights of black cockatoos spread over the fields of 
maize with a noise like the rusty hinges of an old castle all 
flapping together in the wind. 

The Bishop himself began that wonderful course of 
missionary labour among the convicts which attracted so 
much attention, produced so great an influence, and, more 
than any other part of his ministry, drew so great a vene- 
ration towards him. He had not merely the heart of a 
father, but the heart of a mother towards them. When 
they came into his presence he wept over them, and they 
could never resist the influence of his words. The first step 
he took was to obtain leave from the Government for all 
the Catholic prisoners, as they arrived by ship, to be re- 
tained in the convict barracks of Sydney for ten days before 
they were sent up the country. When a ship arrived from 
Ireland there would be as many as three hundred to look 
after. They were brought to the church at six in the 
morning and remained until eleven ; again marched to the 
church at three and remained until six. It was a kind of 
retreat adapted to their circumstances. The Bishop was 
there the whole time, assisted by the Sydney clergy. 
After an address by the Bishop, they were classified by the 
clergy into those who had not performed their religious 
duties for one, for three, for five, or for ten years. After 

Autobiography of Archbishop U II a thorite. 113 

the clergy had examined into the amount of instruction 
which each possessed, they were re-classified for instruction, 
the ecclesiastical students acted as catechists, and some of 
the men were picked out as monitors. Then began the 
confessions, in which the Bishop took his large share. He 
gave most of the instructions, and after the religious duties 
were completed by Holy Communion, a special course of 
instruction and advice was given to them regarding their 
position as convicts, what power their masters had over 
them, how the law affected them, to what dangers they 
were exposed, and how they would most effectually succeed 
in obtaining mitigation, good treatment, and their ticket of 
leave ; after this they proceeded to their assignment. 

I need scarcely say that this system produced a most 
beneficial result which was widely recognised. In my 
evidence before the Parliamentary Committee on Trans- 
portation in the year 1838, I was able to quote a letter 
from the Bishop, stating that, of 1,400 prisoners who had 
already gone through this system, only two had found their 
way into the Sydney Jail; and that, whereas hitherto our 
clergy had attended not less than twenty executions yearly, 
during the six months since this system was adopted only 
one Catholic had been executed, and he for a crime of 
three years' standing. In short, it was a common remark 
among the clergy, that those whom they had in hand on 
their arrival very rarely found their way into jail. 

This was but a part of the Bishop's labour among the 
convicts. At regular intervals he visited the felons' jail, 
instructed the Catholics, heard their confessions, and said 
Mass for them in the press room. Shortly after he had 
said his first Mass there, the head jailer, a good Catholic, 
and a man of mild manners though of resolute will, said to 
me : " I will tell you something, Sir, and you will tell it to 
no one else. You know how this place is infested with 
small vermin, so that even our rough men can hardly 

H4 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

stand it. Well, when we are crowded we are obliged 
to put a lot of men in the press room of a night to 
sleep. But ever since the Bishop has said Mass there, 
there is a rush of men to get to that end of the room, 
because there have been no vermin there since that time." 
If there were men to be executed he always prepared 
them, although a priest attended them on the scaffold. 

Every Sunday morning, the convicts, from their barracks, 
were marched to the last Mass in the Cathedral, where 
they crowded to the Bishop's confessional ; and when he 
had to officiate, the congregation had consequently to be 
detained a long time before the service began. Occasionally 
it became my duty to represent the great inconvenience to 
the congregation. He would then weep, and say : " Any 
one else I could put off, but I cannot resist these poor 
creatures." After the Sunday Vespers, he would mount 
his horse and proceed to a large chain-gang on Goat 
Island, or perhaps to some other chain-gang working on 
the roads, but boxed up in wooden huts on Sundays. 
There he would have the Catholics drawn out, and after 
an earnest address to them would use some retired place 
for a confessional. After the hard labours of the Sunday 
were over, he delighted to have all the Sydney clergy at 
his house to a late dinner, and took that opportunity to 
invite any lay gentleman to whom he wished to show 

When he went up the country the convicts were always 
his first care, and he got as many to Mass as he could and 
spent much of his time with them. When they knew he 
was coming, the Catholic settlers met him on the confines 
of the district, on horseback, and conducted him to the 
church, if there was one, or to the temporary place where 
he was to officiate. He made it a point, before leaving, to 
ride through the district in company with the priest, calling 
at the house of every free Catholic or Emancipist who 

Autobiography of ArchbisJiop Ullathorne. 115 

respected himself, and was of good conduct. But if a man 
was not living properly, or neglected his duty to his family, 
he rode past his house without taking any notice of him. 
He thus inspired the Emancipists to respect themselves, 
and with the same view he established respectable schools 
for their sons and founded a Catholic newspaper, which 
taught them their public rights and duties. 

Having such an influence over the convicts they ran to 
him, as to a father, in their hours of distress. Let me give 
an example. He was walking in his large garden on a 
certain day, saying his office, when a man in a wretched 
plight came from his hiding-place among the trees and 
knelt before him. He then told his story. He had ab- 
sconded from service 150 miles up the country, because 
the overseer had been down upon him, and had unjustly 
reported him so often to his master that he had been 
flogged several times. He then showed his back covered 
with wounds and scars, and declared he was so miserable 
that he could bear it no longer. He had come all that 
way, avoiding the roads, and had had nothing to eat for 
three days but a green cob of maize, for he was obliged to 
keep in hiding. After questioning him closely, the Bishop 
sent him to the kitchen for food, and went straight to the 
Principal Superintendent of Convicts, an officer of great 
authority. To him he told the whole tale, expressed his 
conviction of the truth, and pleaded for mercy. The 
Superintendent replied : " The man must be sent to the 
barracks, and must be punished ; but I promise you he 
shall be sent to another master, and to one who will do 

The Bishop's servants were mostly convicts, and, of 
course, he was kind to them. There was an old man 
among them, who worked in the garden, who was very 
simple, and, in the main, honest ; but seeing the Bishop's 
jewelled mitre, wrapped it in a cloth, carried it to the 

n6 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

principal hatter in the city, said it was a curious Indian 
cap, and asked the master of the shop what he would give 
for it. The master suspected at once that it was something 
belonging to the Catholic Bishop. He detained the old 
man, and sent a messenger to the Bishop's house. A priest 
went to the shop, took possession of the mitre and the old 
man, and on his arrival at home he was saluted with general 
laughter. No more notice was taken of it. The old man 
worked on, but never heard the last of the mitre from his 

Our wants of all kinds increased so much that the Bishop 
thought it desirable that I should go to England, and 
thence to Ireland, and do the best I could to provide for 
them. As, however, things were in a very unsatisfactory 
state in Hobart Town, his Lordship wished me first to 
accompany him thither, and so start on the long voyage 
from that port. We accordingly proceeded thither on May 
I oth, 1836. 



AFTER completing affairs in Hobart Town, I took the 
first ship that offered for England. It proved to be a 
heavy tub, with not only an uncultured, but an incompetent 
captain, and we were full six months on the voyage. I 
found the cabin passengers to be a surgeon of the navy, 
who had taken out a shipload of convict women to 
Hobart Town, a pleasant companion ; a young English- 
man, educated in Germany and equally agreeable ; an un- 
cultured Scotch Presbyterian minister, who had originally 
been a carpenter a kind man, but going home in trouble ; 
a young Scotch settler, who, though a Presbyterian, looked 
to me for guidance; and a Jewess, who was a widow with 
her two young daughters. 

So unskilful a navigator was the captain, that he ran us 
into sixty-six degrees south latitude, far beyond Cape 
Horn, where we were entangled among icebergs for nearly 
a fortnight. The men lost all confidence, got low spirited, 
and proposed to the chief mate that he should take com- 
mand of the ship. He very properly told the captain, 
and so the conspiracy was stopped. I counted more than 
seventy icebergs in sight at once ; and we must have 
passed through some two thousand of them. Some of the 
largest, as measured by the quadrant, were 1 50 feet in height 
above the sea, and a quarter of a mile long, but most of 
them were much smaller. The weather was squally as 

Ii8 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

well as foggy, and a look-out had to be kept day and 
night from the foreyard. It was intensely cold, but we 
passengers agreed to have no fires, but to wrap warm and 
take plenty of exercise. All our live stock, sheep, pigs, 
goats and poultry died of the cold ; and the shrewd old 
surgeon watched the dying moments of the creatures, to 
see that they were thrown overboard and not brought to 
table. After clearing the icebergs we ran to Cape Horn, 
and, strange to say, were becalmed off Staten Island for 
a whole day. 

Four little Cape pigeons accompanied us during the 
whole way from the coast of New Zealand to the Horn ; 
they never rested on the ship, but sometimes on the water, 
and flew about in the whole run, picking up anything the 
cook threw overboard. At the Horn they left us, and 
another came about us with a string tied to its leg. In a 
fortnight we ran from Cape Horn to the Brazils, where, in 
rapid change from cold to heat, most of us caught cold. 
After a long spell at sea the sense of smell becomes acute 
on approaching land. We were in a fog and could see 
nothing, but the odour of land was rich with perfumes. 
Suddenly the mist cleared, and the land revealed itself 
covered with orange trees in flower and fruit. Our next 
object was to make for Rio Janeiro, to obtain fresh pro- 
visions. But the captain again blundered. He had clear 
observations the day before, sighting the bold land about 
Rio Janeiro, but mistook it, and sailed back some sixty 
miles, when he fairly confessed he knew not where he was. 
We got a man off in a boat from the shore, and I was able 
to understand him. We were near, he said, to the Bay of 
Angra deis Reis. He undertook to pilot us into the bay, 
and there we came to anchor off the town. I landed with 
the captain, to assist him to find a ship agent. We found 
a respectable young Englishman acting as American 
Consul, and he undertook to provision the ship. 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 119 

Two hills rose above the town, on one of which stood a 
large Benedictine monastery, and on the other a Carmelite 
convent of men. The next day I took my young Scotch 
friend as a companion, and went up to the Benedictine 
monastery. The Prior received us with true Religious 
courtesy and hospitality, and we stayed the night that 
I might say Mass next morning. There were but few 
Religious to take care of the property ; for the Religious 
Orders had been suppressed through the influence of the 
Freemasons. My Scotch companion was awestruck with 
all he saw ; and was quite nervous as we passed through 
the long cloisters, lighted by a single lamp, to our rooms. 
The negro slaves of the property, about forty in number, 
were chanting the Salve Regina after returning from their 
work. There was an Irish medical man married to a 
native Portuguese, who possessed considerable wealth, and 
had built for himself a beautiful mansion outside the 
town. In this mansion he invited me and my companion 
to take up our quarters, and assembled a party to meet us. 
I found religion at a low ebb generally, and most of the 
clergy in a low condition. This was in part a consequence 
of the revolution, and I have reason to believe that there 
has been considerable improvement of late. But at that 
time scarcely anyone went to the Sacraments, unless in 
danger of death. I found one parish priest, however, who 
was truly pious and earnest, and paid him all the attention 
I could. 

The public school was in beautiful order ; but this priest 
assured me they were not allowed to teach religion in it ; 
not even the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. Angra deis Reis 
is the great coffee-growing district. I was impressed with 
the modest demeanour of the slaves ; both men and 
women, on the roads, even with loads on their heads, stood 
still as we passed and asked a blessing in the name of 
Christ. We entered a large barn-like* place in a coffee 

1 20 A utobiography of A rchbishop Ullathorne. 

plantation, where an old negro woman had care of the 
infant negroes ; and a strange sight it was to see such a 
number of little blackies crawling all over the long floor 
with very slight clothing in the great heat. 

Our host invited us to a good long ride into the country 
to visit a collegiate establishment. The soil was wonder- 
fully rich, abounding in plantations of coffee, sugar, and 
tapioca. Palm, orange, and cocoa trees were profuse on 
the roadsides, and the pineapple grew everywhere, like a 
common weed. The head of the College was an excellent 
Portuguese Oratorian, a man of considerable attainments 
as well as piety. He read a little English, and showed me 
his English books. There was specimens of our science, 
and of our literature, as he told me. The first was an 
odd volume of an old " Repertory of Arts and Sciences," the 
second was Harvey's " Meditation on the Tombs," the 
third was Miss Bordenham's " Mrs. Herbert and the 
Villagers." He was surprised when I told him they were 
not fair samples of English thought and letters. Just as 
we were sailing I received by a messenger a letter from 
this good Father, written in beautiful Latinity. He sent 
me some money, asking me to purchase with it and send 
him some good books in English. I was obliged to 
return it, as I could not reach him without some address 
at Rio Janeiro. He also sent me a present of a large 
bird, which, he said, was a stranger in that country. It 
proved to be a very fine specimen of the great horned 
screamer, so called from having two large horns in front 
of each of its wings. I had hoped to take it home 
as a present to the Zoological Society, but knowing 
nothing of its habits we could find nothing it would eat, 
and so it died. I gave it to the surgeon to stuff for the 
Army and Navy Surgeons' Museum. 

Nothing particular occurred during the rest of the 
voyage, except that the young man who was teaching me 

Autobiography of ArcJibishop Ullathorne. 121 

German had a quarrel with the big carpenter, a Shetlander, 
whom he throttled and nearly strangled ; when I had to 
interfere and restore peace. I contrived to make a sort of 
retreat, as I always did on long voyages*. I also wrote 
some chapters on the convict system, which afterwards 
proved of use. But when I afterwards found that so little 
was then known in England about the Australian Colonies, 
I regretted that I had not prepared a book on the subject. 
Indeed, I was urged by a friend at Hobart Town to return 
first to Sydney to gather materials. But duty urged 
expedition, and I left Sydney at a day's notice. I landed 
in my native country towards the close of 1836. 


ALTHOUGH it was some time after my arrival in England 
before I proceeded to Rome, it will be better to dispose of 
that visit first. The occasion was a letter received from 
Cardinal Weld, requesting me to go to Rome and make a 
report to the Holy See on the Mission of Australia. At 
Paris I met some of the devout Catholics of that city, and 
amongst others the future President of the Society of St. 
Vincent de Paul, then a young man, who kindly drove me 
to the principal churches and charitable institutions. I 
also made the acquaintance of the Venerable Abbe Ducot. 
who had been long in India, but had published a dis- 
couraging book about its missions, as they were at that 
time. Father O'Meara, then tutor to the present Mr. 
Hornyhold, also introduced me to several of the leaders of 
Catholic afTairs whom it was interesting to know. At 
Chalons-sur-Saone I met the celebrated Abbot Gueranger 
on the steamer, in company with Father Brandis, after- 
wards Novice-master at the great Monastery of Einsiedeln, 
and author of several Benedictine books. They were on 
their way to Rome to obtain approval for the new founda- 
tion of French Benedictines which Gueranger was estab- 
lishing. I was the first professed Benedictine they had 
ever seen, and they asked me if I belonged to the monas- 
tery near Bath. They were going to the Monastery of St. 
Calisto in Rome, expecting that the Procurator of the 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 123 

English Benedictines, who lived there, would be of use to 
them. I also was going to the same house, and we joined 
company. I found the Abbot well versed in the Fathers 
and Church history, and we had much interesting conver- 
sation. He maintained the authenticity of the works 
ascribed to St. Dionysius, and spoke of writing on the 
subject. He had completed the first volume of his 
" Origines Ecclesiae Romanae," of which he had copies for 
Rome ; but his great contest for restoring the Roman 
Breviary to its integrity in France, and his magnificent 
work, the " Institutions Liturgiques," prevented its being 
ever completed. He was an enthusiastic lover of art and 
a valuable companion in visiting Genoa, Pisa, and Florence. 

At Lyons I was introduced to the managers of the 
Society of the Propagation of the Faith, then in its early 
years. I do not forget the kind attention which I received 
from them. At their request I drew up a full account of 
the Australian Mission and of the convict system, to which 
I added a description of the country and of its most 
curious productions. It filled nearly a number of their 
" Annals/' and being so completely new, was said to have 
advanced the interests of the Society. The Society voted 
a handsome allocation of money to Australia, and it was 
continued for many years. 

We arrived at San Calisto in Rome on the morning of 
Holy Saturday, 1837. As there was no Benedictine Car- 
dinal at that time the suite of rooms for the use of that 
dignitary were vacant, and the Fathers put them at my 
disposal. So soon as I was refreshed I went out with 
Father (afterwards Bishop) Collier to see St. Peter's and 
attend the Pontifical functions in the Sixtine Chapel. When 
he brought me in front of the Colonnade, I said : " This is 
not St. Peter's, you have deceived me ; it is some minia- 
ture of it." It was so dwarfed by distance that I really 
believed it to be nothing else. But as we approached it 

124 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne, 

grew upon the eye into the enormous temple it is. We 
entered the Sixtine, but I had no sooner got a glimpse of 
the Pope than I was turned out by the Swiss Guard. " Is 
this the Roman welcome?" I said to Father Collier. 
" Coming from the far end of the world to report a new 
continent for the work of the Church, I am at once turned 
out of the Pontifical Chapel." He then, however, recol- 
lected that the frock-coat was the sin I bore upon me. I 
ought to have been in the habit of my Order. But that I 
had never worn, and it had yet to be made. The Pontifical 
Chapel is part of the Pontifical Court, and requires some 
kind of Court costume. 

When I was presented to the Cardinal Prefect of Propa- 
ganda, the mild and gentle Cardinal Franzoni, as Vicar- 
General of Australia, His Eminence, after a quiet inspection, 
exclaimed : u Qual giovane ! " And after answering a few 
questions, I retired. On my presentation to Pope Gregory 
XVI. by the same title, His Holiness uttered the same ex- 
clamation : " Qual giovane ! What a youth." But he was 
truly paternal, and expressed a hope to see my report. 
On fire as I was, and that habitually, with the interests of 
the Australian Mission, and anxious to awaken a like 
interest in Rome, these receptions considerably cooled me. 
I felt I was looked on as a mere boy, and I therefore kept 
out of sight, and set to work with my report. I drew it 
up at considerable length, in four parts. It was put into 
Italian by Dr. Collier, and was revised by Abbot Pes- 
chiatelli. I presented it one part at a time, until I knew 
that the whole had been printed at the Propaganda Press. 
I then called upon the Cardinal Prefect, who expressed 
warm interest in the report, and became very cordial. He 
also informed me, to my great satisfaction, that a Canon of 
the Cathedral of Vienna, moved by what he had heard 
of that country, had given a foundation for the maintenance 
of a priest at Norfolk Island. I think that his informant 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 125 

must have been the late Baron von Hiigel, who in his early 
days had made the tour of the Australian Colonies, and 
whom I had the pleasure of meeting with his family, in 
England, in later days. 

I took the opportunity to observe to the Cardinal Prefect, 
that as both His Holiness and himself had remarked, with 
apparent surprise, upon my youthful ness, I begged to 
observe that I had not sought the office, that it was im- 
posed upon me, and that I was most ready to resign it. 
His Eminence replied that the report I had given was fully 
approved, that I had worked the Australian soil a good 
deal, and that I was not to suppose there was any dis- 
satisfaction. His Holiness also directed that I should 
receive the diploma of Doctor in Divinity. I then began 
to understand Rome in a way that long experience has 
confirmed. When persons go there with great ecclesiastical 
or religious interests to be settled, they are commonly 
treated with a certain reserve, if they are strangers, until 
their spirit and character are seen through, when, if satis- 
factory, they are treated with every kindness and con- 

As Cardinal Weld had invited me to Rome, he gave me 
a cordial welcome. At his table I met his son-in-law, Lord 
Clifford; the Miss Clifford who was afterwards first Prioress 
of St. Scholastica's, Atherstone ; and the present Cardinal 
di Luca, then secretary to Cardinal Weld. The next day 
the Cardinal was taken ill ; he was repeatedly bled, ac- 
cording to the medical system of Rome at that time, 
against which all the English exclaimed ; and in the 
course of a week he died. His departure caused uni- 
versal regret. His great piety, his charity, and his edi- 
fying and recollected demeanour, so marked on all 
occasions, had drawn towards him a very high degree 
of respect. Besides the solemn Requiem at his funeral, 
at which the Pope himself assisted, Lord Clifford had a 

126 Autobiography of ArchbisJwp Ullathorne. 

Requiem celebrated at San Carlo in Corso, to which the 
English in Rome were invited, and at which Dr. Wiseman 
read a long oration recounting the history of the Cardinal's 
life. This gave rise to a singular scene for so solemn an 
occasion, and that in a Roman church. The music was 
the celebrated Requiem of Mozart, performed by the best 
singers, with instrumentation. Mozart is rarely heard in 
Roman churches, and it attracted the artists and musicians. 
But when the thrilling tones of Mozart had become inter- 
rupted for a long time by the monotonous reading of 
Dr. (afterwards Cardinal) Wiseman, in the harsh sounding 
English language, however interesting to the English, 
the Italians could stand it no longer, but set up a hissing 
all over the church. After a few moments Dr. Wiseman 
got a hearing, and by a few words of grave and dignified 
rebuke restored silence until the lecture was completed. 

This was the only time at which I ever knew Italians 
misbehave in a church. As to the misconduct of the 
English, it was at that time proverbial. On the very next 
day after my arrival, which was Easter Sunday, I saw an 
Englishman striving against the Swiss Guards, to force his 
way into the dress circle at the Pontifical Mass. The Captain 
of the Guard came up to remonstrate, when the English- 
man squared his fist at him. The captain clapped his 
hand on his sword, but three halberdiers quietly put their 
shoulders against the Englishman and as quietly moved 
him back out of the way. Just before my arrival a most 
disgraceful thing occurred. The ground was very wet, and 
the Pope, in his white robes, was taking a walk at some dis- 
tance from his attendants, when three brothers, Englishmen, 
and gentlemen so-called, met him where there was but a 
narrow path with a puddle on each side. The three brothers 
linked their arms together and met His Holiness full face. 
The Pope stopped and pointed to the puddle, they only 
laughed and went right on, and His Holiness stepped into the 

Autobiography of Arc/ibis hop UllatJiornc. 127 

puddle, as he said, almost to his knees, and got away before 
the attendants joined him. The carnage then came up and 
the Pope entered it. The Pope sent for Cardinal Weld and 
narrated the whole affair. The Cardinal's brother-in-law, 
Mr. Bodenham, from whom 1 had the story, went straight 
to their lodgings. The sister appeared, but they got out 
of the way. On hearing his statement she expressed her 
indignation at such a charge. He replied : " Madam, it is 
true, and I have come in kindness, after conferring with 
the Marquis of Anglesea, to say that their passports will 
arrive directly; but unless they leave Rome at once you 
will have your house filled with the police." 

Dr. Wiseman was then head of the English, Dr. Cullen 
of the Irish, and Dr. Grant of the Scotch College, from all 
of whom I received great kindness. Bishops Walsh and 
Griffiths were also on their visit to Rome, and were lodged 
at the English College. The Pope treated them with 
particular attention. I was invited to accompany them, 
under the guidance of Dr. Wiseman, over the roof of St. 
Peter's, and on ascending the dome we four just filled one 
quarter of the metal ball beneath the cross. There was 
one Cardinal whose kindness to me, a young stranger, 
ought not to be forgotten. Cardinal Castrocani not only 
took a great interest in all my proceedings, but called on 
and presented me with a valuable painting, which he said 
had been bequeathed him by another Cardinal: an "Assump- 
tion of the Blessed Virgin," supposed to be by Guido Reni. 
This picture I gave to the Sisters of Charity whom I took 
out to New South Wales. 

I had a brief interview with Monsignor (afterwards 
Cardinal) Mezzofanti, the great linguist, in company with 
Abbot Gueranger. He was waiting to accompany the 
Pope in a walk through the Vatican Library. I was as much 
struck with the wedge-like form of his brow, as with his 
singular meekness and modesty, and with the remarkable 

128 Autobiography of ArcJibishop Ullathorne. 

pliability of his mouth, which so readily gave itself to every 
form of language and dialect. It was one of those faces 
that could never be forgotten, expressive of a character 
unique and thoroughly simple. 

Another most interesting visit was made to the cele- 
brated Christian artist, Overbeck. Being introduced by 
his intimate friend, the Abbot Peschiatelli, I was allowed 
to see his works still in progress, which, as a rule, he never 
allowed to be seen, but only his finished cartoons and 
paintings. He was then at work on his chief picture, 
representing the influence of religion on the arts, now in 
the Frankfort Gallery. His face was like that of one of 
his own refined ideals. He spoke with warmth of the 
missionary life, and considered his own calling as a kind of 
mission to souls, and quite warmed me with his gentle 

The tranquillity of the Benedictine monastery, the great 
kindness, courtesy, and refinement of the Fathers, and the 
religious influence of Rome, were very grateful after the 
rough work of Australia, and the toils and solicitudes that 
followed my return to England. Then, though I had been 
a professed Benedictine for a dozen years, owing to the 
Penal laws it was the first time that I had ever worn or 
even seen the Benedictine habit ; and I found it a valuable 
control on rapidity of movement, and even of thinking. 
The gentle-hearted Father Glover, of the Gesu, was my 
confessor ; and after kneeling by his side in his cell he 
invited me to sit down, and I obtained useful information 
from his well-informed mind. It was he that put into my 
hands the books, published in America, that first opened 
my eyes to the secret mysteries of Freemasonry, up to its 
highest grades, as practised on the Continent, and which 
were published after the murder of Morgan for betraying 
its secrets, had produced so great a sensation. This 
enabled me to comprehend in a practical way the 

Autobiography of Archbishop U/lat/iorne. 129 

mischievous machinations of that secret society, which is 
so little understood in England. 

Searching everywhere for devoted priests for Australia 
I was told of a priest who, in or near Turin, had founded 
a new Institute of Missioners of self-denying and laborious 
men. Now one thing that fretted me in Italy was to see 
such a vast number of priests, many of them, apparently, 
with little to do, whilst in Australia souls were perishing 
without pastors or Sacraments. I could not help talking 
of this. But I soon ascertained that the really competent 
men in Rome were engaged in one important occupation 
or another, and that a certain class of priests, then 
numerous, were men on their little patrimonies, or chap - 
laincies, mere Mass-saying priests, who would have been 
more in our way than a help to work like ours. 

I asked Father Glover's opinion about the new Institute 
of Missioners near Turin. He said the name of the 
founder was Rosmini, but that his writings were suspected 
of having a taint of novelty and unsoundness. I then 
asked if there had been any reply to them, and he 
mentioned the works of Gioberti, which could be got at 
Genoa. But when I inquired of the booksellers at Genoa, 
they told me that his books were prohibited by the State, 
and he himself sent into exile. In the year 1848 I sailed 
in the same vessel with Gioberti from Genoa to Civita 
Vecchia, and was surprised to observe his extremely 
nervous state of body ; his head and limbs shook con- 
tinually, and I was told by those who knew him that he 
was always in more or less of fever, which appeared to be 
confirmed by the red and inflamed condition of his eyes. 
I never could understand his fundamental position in 
ontology (of which the American, Brownson, made so 
much), that in every affirmative proposition were affirmed 
ens creat existentias ; for creation is a free act of the 
Divine will, and is not, therefore, an object of our mental 


130 Autobiography of Archbishop Vllathorne. 

intuition ; and St. Paul teaches that " by faith we know 
that the world was created by the word of God." Then 
existences are contingent, and of contingencies we have no 
mental intuition. 

On the invitation of the Cardinal Prefect of Propaganda, 
I stayed at Rome for the festival of Corpus Christi and 
witnessed the great procession at St. Peter's, which 
impressed me, more than anything I had seen, with the 
religious grandeur and resources of Rome. At my farewell 
audience, the Sovereign Pontiff gave me words of en- 
couragement, and recommended me to learn to speak 
Italian before my next visit to Rome. I bid farewell to the 
Benedictine Fathers, who gave me letters of introduction 
to all the monasteries of the Order that were on my way 
back to England ; and on my subsequent visits to Rome 
though I did not reside with them, I always experienced 
their fraternal charity and hospitality. 

Father Brandis had told me that there was an excellent 
young priest, the son of a magistrate of the district of 
Bellinsona, who desired to go on the foreign missions, and 
he gave me a letter to the father. I therefore returned by 
way of the Alps, and made my way to the house of Signor 
Leoni, the father of the young priest in question, situated 
in a beautiful country by the lake Lugano. Here I pre- 
sented the letter of Father Brandis, and was most cordially 
and hospitably received. But before I proceed let me 
record my last meeting with this good Father. In 1857, 
being an invalid, I was sent by medical advice to the snows 
of Switzerland, and among many interesting places, I paid a 
visit with my reverend companion to the great Monastery of 
Einsiedeln, venerable with the history of a thousand years. 
On arrival I sent in a card and asked for a Father who 
could speak either French or Italian. A Father came, and 
said : " You are no stranger here. We know your history 
as a missioner, and the book I hold in my hands is your 

Autobiography of ArchbisJiop Ullathorne. 131 

book on ' La Salette,' translated. We will send for your 
luggage to the hotel. Our best apartments are at your 
disposal." But as he was conducting us to the apartments 
reserved for dignitaries, the Father stopped suddenly at a 
door, and said : " Here is a Father who speaks French 
fluently." The door opened, and there stood the Novice- 
master in a circle of his novices. I looked at him, he 
looked at me ; then he threw his arms around me. It was 
my old friend Father Brandis. I found him to be a truly 
spiritual man, full of zeal for Benedictine piety. We spent 
delightful days in the Abbot's quarters and witnessed the 
pilgrimages constantly flowing to the sanctuary. On 
parting, Father Brandis gave me his translations of the 
"Rule and Life of St. Benedict," and his "Manual of Bene- 
dictine Piety." 

The family Leoni received me with warm welcome. 
The old magistrate was a man of patriarchal simplicity, 
living among his children and grandchildren, all under 
one roof, after the old mediaeval manner of Italy. I was 
much edified during my three days' stay with the 
simplicity and unity of this large family. There was a 
purity of thought and a piety of heart, a gentle yet free 
courtesy, in this happy society which was very endearing. 
The head of it was a mild, firm, and benevolent character, 
evidently much respected all the country round. On 
Sunday was the monthly procession of the parish round 
the church, when the old magistrate was distinguished 
from the rest by carrying a larger and more ornamented 
candle, and walking last. The young priest, however, was 
not at home, but with his brother, the principal architect 
of Turin. I therefore drove to the Lago Maggiore, crossed 
to Savona, and took the diligence to Turin. During this 
journey I was much taken with the gentle simplicity of a 
young Franciscan friar ; wherever we had to pay fare he 
quietly asked a passage for the love of God, and obtained 


132 Autobiography oj Archbishop U Hat home. 

it. At Turin I stayed some days with the Leonis, who 
took me everywhere. I called to see Rosmini, not losing 
sight of his missionary institute ; but he had gone to visit 
his mother, who was ill. I found the young priest more 
heavy and less spirited than the rest of his family ; but as 
he was eager to go I took him, his brother paying the 
expenses. But at London he lost courage and returned 


ONE of the first things I did in England was to publish, 
in pamphlet form, the "Catholic Mission in Australasia." 
This at once awakened a "warm interest in the missionary 
work of that remote country.* Several English priests 
offered themselves for the work, but their Bishops could 
not spare them. Besides publishing five editions of that 
pamphlet, I took to lecturing on the same subject, and 
generous contributions flowed into my hands. I then went 
to Ireland, and met its Bishops assembled at Maynooth, 
who took such an interest in the wants of Australia that 
several of them promised that if any of their young priests 
were willing to offer themselves, they would account every 
year served in Australia as two towards obtaining a parish, 
in the event of their ultimate return. Several bishops in- 
vited me to visit them at their homes ; but from none of 
them did I obtain more earnest co-operation than from 
Archbishop Murray, of Dublin, and Bishop Kinshela, of 

* In this pamphlet, Dr. Ullathorne writes : " Over the whole range 
of New South Wales there are at present but seven missionaries. 
Sydney alone would require three, yet the Bishop is sometimes left 
alone with its duties added to his own. Vast districts, such as that 
of Bathurst, covered with Catholics, are without a single priest. Van 
Diemen's Land requires seven priests at least, and has only two. 
The south and western colonies, stretching along a line of 2,500 
miles, have never seen a priest." This was written in 1838. The 
provinces here spoken of are now governed by five Archbishops and 
sixteen Bishops, with a corresponding number of clergy. 

134 Autobiography of Arc/ibis It op Ullathorne. 

Ossory. I also received very great assistance from Dr. 
Montague, the President of Maynooth, a remarkably 
shrewd man, who possessed a surprising knowledge of 
the character of every priest in Ireland, and who could 
point out where the most devoted men were to be found. 
Nor must I forget the extreme kindness that I met with 
from all the professors of the College. Dr. Gaffney, the 
Dean of Discipline, was of special service in recommending 
students to me, and at his request I gave a spiritual re 
treat to the students in preparation for ordination. 

At that time the Irish prelates were seriously thinking 
of founding a college for educating priests for the British 
Colonies and foreign settlements, and the Primate, Arch- 
bishop Crolly, asked me to draw up an estimate of the 
probable number that would be required. This I did and 
gave it into his hands. I also made the intimate 
acquaintance of the Franciscan Fathers of Dublin, who had 
recently completed their large church, still called " Adam 
and Eve," owing to a tavern which formerly occupied the 
site and bore that sign. Two of the Fathers volunteered 
for the Australian Mission, Fathers Geoghehan and 
Coffey, the first of whom went out with me, and the latter 
later on. It was in this Religious house that I contracted 
a close friendship with Father McGuire, the celebrated 
controversialist. Few people in these days will recollect 
the famous platform controversies of Pope and McGuire, 
and of Gleig and McGuire. But at that time he was 
giving a great course of controversial lectures at the new 
Franciscan church, which was most densely crowded four 
nights in the week by an audience most eager to hear him. 
What struck me most in these lectures was the wonderful 
amount of freshness and vigour which he gave to old 
familiar texts. As his lectures were long, though intently 
listened to, and very energetic, Father McGuire descended 
from the pulpit his garments saturated with perspiration. 

Autobiography of Archbishop UllatJiornc. 135 

He had immediately to change them ; after which he 
descended into the common room of the Fathers, where 
he was met by a number of his friends. A red-hot poker 
was in the fire, a tumbler of whisky and water on the table. 
He seized the poker, plunged it into the beverage, and 
drank it off hissing ; after which he was safe from the 
consequences of his exertions. Then followed colloquial 
interchange of wit and learning for some two hours, such 
as I never witnessed before or since ; after which I drove 
Father McGuire to his lodgings before I went to my own. 
The famous controversy between Pope and McGuire has 
a history attached to it, which, as it is very little known, 
I may as well repeat. Richard Coyne, the well-known 
publisher in Dublin, had an extensive knowledge of contro- 
versial books down from the time of the self-styled Refor- 
mation. At the beginning of that public controversy he 
was unacquainted with Father McGuire, but went, through 
curiosity, to see what was going on. He soon detected 
that Pope was using " Leslie's Case Stated," and that 
McGuire was not acquainted with the book. He then got 
introduced to McGuire and asked him to come and dine 
with him on Sunday. McGuire alleged in excuse that on 
Sunday he must go to Maynooth to extract from the 
Fathers. " I will give you the Fathers in a nutshell," re- 
plied Coyne. Accordingly he accepted the invitation. I 
give what follows in the words of Coyne, addressed to me 
in the presence of McGuire. As soon as McGuire arrived 
at his house Coyne put an old book into his hands, open 
at the subject at which the controversy then stood. This 
book was Manning's " Leslie's Case Stated," into which the 
Catholic controversialist had inserted the whole of Leslie's 
book, word for word, and had answered it point by point, 
not only with great ability, but with a pleasant humour, 
especially in his powerful appeals to the principles of his 
adversary. " He no sooner had read a few pages," con- 

136 Autobiography vf Archbishop Ullathorne. 

tinued Coyne, " than, in his humility, that man (pointing 
to McGuire) dropped on his knees, lifted his eyes to 
Heaven, and thanked God for the gift." Pope was equally 
ignorant of Manning's reply, and the subsequent history 
of the controversy is this : Pope daily rested on a bed 
after his exertions, whilst a friend read to him " Leslie's 
Case Stated " ; McGuire took a long walk in the Phcenix 
Park with Coyne, and worked into his mind Manning's 
reply. After the controversy was over, and published, Mr. 
Pope retired from all future controversy, took up his resi- 
dence at Bangor, and an affectionate correspondence was 
maintained between the two combatants become friends 
so long as both lived. Coyne then published a new edition 
of Manning's " Leslie's Case Stated," which he dedicated 
to Father McGuire as the " Bossuet of the British 

In all future platform controversies and lectures McGuire 
never felt satisfied without having Coyne close by him ; 
whilst in their familiar hours McGuire always called Coyne 
his father and Coyne called McGuire his son. It was 
most amusing to hear the tall ecclesiastic calling out to 
the little layman : u Dicky, my father," and then the reply : 
" What, Tom, my son ?" I had one especial opportunity of 
being entertained with this style of colloquy. At leisure 
times I was fond of searching into old book shops, picking 
up what I thought might be useful in Australia, where 
books in those days were very scarce. In Dame Street, 
Dublin, I thus picked up a great rarity, no less than the 
collection of the original tracts, pamphlets, and sermons 
of Martin Luther, without any of those expurgations of his 
abusive language and obscenities which were effected in 
the collected editions of his works. They were bound up 
in a dozen quarto volumes. The woodcuts in the several 
title pages showed how his publisher had progressed with 
the author. The earlier tracts were ornamented with the 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 137 

tiara, the Papal keys, and other Catholic emblems, which 
belonged to the printer's old stores, but as time went on, 
the printer could afford to change them for satirical pictures, 
until they became obscene and even blasphemous. I 
showed this rare collection to Coyne, and told him how 
little they had cost me. He at once set his heart upon 
them, but in vain : they were unobtainable. He then 
tried another move. He invited Father McGuire and a 
number of lay friends to meet me at dinner. After the 
cloth was removed, and the claret had circulated (I never 
touched wine in those days, it refused to agree with me) 
Mr. Coyne tapped the table and called out to McGuire 
at the opposite end of it : " Tom, my son." " What, Dicky, 
my father ? " " Here is Dr. Ullathorne, who has got 
possession of a rare collection of the original unexpunged 
tracts of Martin Luther ; and I am sure he agrees with me 
that they can be in no way better placed than in the hands 
of the great controversialist of Ireland." McGuire was 
profuse in thanks, and the whole table applauded. After 
silence had returned, all looked at me, so I rose and said : 
" My dear Father McGuire, I know how much value you 
would set on such a collection and how useful it would be 
in your controversies. The mere exhibition of the wood- 
cuts would be sufficient to reveal the base character of the 
foul heresiarch who has cast so much confusion into the 
world. I also know how much my friend, Mr. Coyne, with 
his great knowledge of controversial books, appreciates the 
possession of such a book as this. I only know of one copy 
more of it ; and as we are all three agreed upon its value, 
I think we shall further agree that it is desirable that there 
should be a copy at each end of the world. My copy will 
be packed shortly for Australia." 

The friendship which I enjoyed with the clergy of 
Dublin, and the opportunities which this gave me of 
observing their life of duty, led me to a high estimation of 

138 Autobiography of ArchbisJiop U II at home. 

their learning and zeal, as well as of the religious influence 
which they exercised over their people. The charities of 
the city of Dublin were to me wonderful. I preached in 
the Jesuit Church for the Institute of the Good Shepherd, 
which then bore another name ; made acquaintance with 
the Foundress of the Sisters of Mercy ; and arranged 
with Mrs. Aikenhead, the Foundress of the Sisters of 
Charity, for a filiation of five Sisters to accompany me to 
Sydney, for which the approval of Archbishop Murray was 
readily obtained. At his house I had the pleasure of 
meeting that very laborious prelate, Bishop Scott, the first 
Vicar- Apostolic of Glasgow. To converse with a man of 
his energy and experience was no common gain. 

But it was Bishop Kinshela, of Ossory, who took me 
strongly by the hand. His house at Kilkenny was like a 
home to me. He took me with him to visitations, eccle- 
siastical conferences, and on other occasions, and initiated 
me into the whole working of the Irish Church. He gave 
me the run of his Seminary, with leave to take as many 
young men as offered themselves for Australia. I selected 
one priest and five students, who afterwards turned out 
valuable priests. Thus, whilst working in the interests of 
Australia, I was gathering useful experience for myself. 

In the midst of this work, in the early part of the year 
1838, I was summoned to give evidence before Sir William 
Molesworth's Committee on Transportation. The pamphlet 
I had written on the Australian Mission had awakened 
attention ; and without my knowing it, Dr. Lingard, the 
historian of England, had written a letter to a member of 
Parliament, recommending that I should be examined 
before that Committee. On my arrival in London, Sir W. 
Molesworth invited me by note to a private interview. I 
went to his house, and was amused to find him in a dandy 
silk dressing-gown covered with flowers like a garden, and 
tied tight with a silk cord with flowing tassels. He had 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 139 

my pamphlet before him, and tried to coach me up as to 
the best way of giving evidence. When we came to one 
embarrassing point, I told him it was doubtful whether I 
ought to speak on it. He pulled up his head, gave me a 
menacing look, and said : " Do you know how grave would 
be the consequences of your refusing ? " I looked into 
his eyes whilst replying : " You have read that book, and 
ought to know that I am not a man to be talked to in that 
way." He tried to laugh it off, and I said to him gravely : 
" At present 1 have conscientious doubts whether I ought 
to speak on that subject. I will consult some of the best 
theologians and acton their advice." The printed evidence 
itself will show in what manner both the chairman and 
myself approached that subject, and how I contrived to 
throw the weight of the testimony on other shoulders. 
Before the Committee, being in a new position, full of 
matter, and like a young soldier for the first time under 
fire, somewhat excited, I spoke with such rapidity that I 
had to be repeatedly stopped by the members, that the 
reporter might be able to record the words. The Report of 
that Committee forms a large volume, and in the Appendix 
will be found a good deal of my correspondence with the 
Secretary for the Colonies, concerning the clergy whom I 
sent out from time to time. 

Knowing the importance of interesting members of Par- 
liament in my transactions with the Government, I made it 
a point to sit in the Strangers' Gallery on most nights of that 
winter during the debates. Sometimes Mr. Philip Howard 
would come up and sit with me, sometimes Mr. O'Connel^ 
sometimes others ; but the man I found most difficult to 
converse with was Mr. Shiel, who then held office, but who 
was too quick and restless to listen to details and wanted to 
jump at once at conclusions. Avoiding obtrusiveness, I 
took every opportunity of studying men and things. But I 
jearnt more of the ways of Parliament in its routine business, 

140 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

than during debates ; although Parliament was very differ- 
ent then to what it is now. Then during great debates 
everyone was absorbed and there was no speaking to any- 
one. I witnessed remarkable scenes and exhibitions of 
character in the old house of St. Stephen's, but this is not 
the place in which to record them. I must not forget to 
notice the invaluable services which I received from Mr. 
Howard, of Carlisle, during the whole of my mission to 
England ; he was always at my service with his kindness 
and industry. And I took the first opportunity on my 
return to inform the Catholics of Australia of what he had 
done for them. 

At this time Sir Richard Bourke was attacked in certain 
letters to the Times, to which I wrote a reply that was well 
received in New South Wales. I had one curious bit of 
correspondence with Lord Glenelg, the Secretary for the 
Colonies. I had applied for a stipend, passage money, and 
outfit for a priest for Norfolk Island. This was granted- 
There had been a great difficulty in obtaining an Anglican 
chaplain for that destination, and the Governor of New 
South Wales had written to Lord Glenelg that no Anglican 
could be induced to go there, and that in consequence he 
had been obliged to send a Dissenting minister. What, 
then, was my surprise when I received no more than 
100 for passage and outfit of the priest for Norfolk Island, 
whilst for each of those sent out to New South Wales I 
received ^150. I at once paid the priest appointed to that 
penal settlement 150, and sent him on his way. I then 
wrote to Lord Glenelg, told him what I had done ; repre- 
sented the much greater sacrifices that awaited him, besides 
his having to undertake a second voyage ; and added that 
unless the additional 50 were paid I should have to beg it 
of friends, and that I was sure it was not the intention of 
Government that I should fit out the servant of Govern- 
ment with the beggings of chanty. The result was that 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 141 

the other 50 were paid. Having occasion to call on Sir 
George Grey, who was then new in the office of Under 
Secretary, I was received with an amusing check. Instead 
of waiting to hear my business, by the time I had reached 
his official table he had pulled himself up into what some- 
people would call great dignity, and said : "We never inter- 
fere between a priest and his bishop." " Pardon me," I 
said ; " I am well aware of that. But I call as the repre- 
sentative of the Catholic Bishop of Sydney, and am known 
to Lord Glenelg, with whom I have had several trans- 
actions." He then entered into business. 

I must here mention that I had obtained the services of 
the Rev. Francis Murphy, then senior priest of St. 
Patrick's, Liverpool, who, having been educated at May- 
nooth, went over to that College, and there induced several 
young priests to join him. I obtained their passage and 
outfit, and they proceeded at once to Sydney. On again 
returning to Dublin, Mr. Drummond, secretary to the 
Lord-Lieutenant, and a most popular man in Ire- 
land, sent me a request to call on him. He repre- 
sented to me how completely the Irish people were 
in the dark respecting the sufferings and trials that 
attended transportation to the Penal colonies. They had 
heard of the final success of a few men who had been 
banished to Australia, and were completely deceived as to 
the painful lot of the great multitude. He then asked me 
to write something that might open their eyes. I told 
him that, as I had heard similar sentiments expressed by 
many priests, I would write a popular tract on the subject. 
I then wrote the tract entitled " The Horrors of Transpor- 
tation," got Mr. Coyne to put it in type, and sent a copy 
to Mr. Drummond, with the information that it stood in 
type at Mr. Coyne's, and was entirely at his disposal. 
He sent it to London for the Lord -Lieutenant's approval, 
which having obtained, he ordered a very large number of 

142 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

copies, which were sent in packets to the parish priests 
and to the prisoners. 

I then gave a course of lectures on the Australian 
Mission and the condition of the convicts, in the churches 
of Lancashire, which, as they had been preceded by my 
pamphlet on the subject published in Liverpool, awakened 
a great deal of interest. The churches were densely 
crowded, and collections reached a sum considerably 
beyond the average. Ladies occasionally put their jewels 
on the plates. In the course of six weeks I collected some 
,1,500. The Fathers of the Society of Jesus were 
particularly cordial in co-operation. I then met the 
English Bishops assembled on their affairs at York. They 
took a kind interest in the Australian Mission, although 
they could not spare us any priests. I also assisted at the 
opening of the chapel of New Oscott, at which all the 
Bishops were present, as well as a hundred priests. On 
that occasion the more ample form of vestments was first 
introduced in place of the old form derived from France. 
Pugin, with his dark eyes flashing and tears on his cheeks, 
superintended the procession of the clergy, and declared 
that it was the greatest day for the Church in England 
since the Reformation. Dr. Weedall preached an elaborate 
discourse on Catholic education. 


HAVING already sent two companies of priests on their 
way to Sydney, as well as several school teachers, three 
remaining priests, the five Sisters of Charity, and five 
ecclesiastical students assembled in London, and we em- 
barked on board the Sir Frauds Spaight towards the end 
of July, bound direct for Sydney without any intermediate 
stoppage. Among the reverend clergy whom I had engaged 
for the Mission were the Rev. Francis Murphy, who after- 
wards became the first Bishop of Adelaide ; the Rev. F. 
Gcoghehan, who became the second Bishop of Adelaide ; 
and the Rev. T. A. Gould, O.S.A., who became first Bishop 
and afterwards the first Archbishop of Melbourne. I had 
secured the stern cabin for the Sisters, with one room in 
which they could meet, and a large cabin for myself, in 
which an altar could be fixed, and where I could assemble 
our whole company for Mass in moderate weather. Having 
good sea legs and a quick sense in the feet of the coming 
movements of a ship, I felt secure at all times ; but had a 
priest strapped at one end of the altar, to hold the foot of 
the chalice whilst it was on the altar. The chief difficulty 
was to manage the confessional for the nuns. I did not 
think it expedient that they should come to my cabin, so 
every Saturday morning I went openly, with a book under 
my arm, to the cabin where they could assemble, and they 
came one by one. The passengers concluded that I had 
some special instruction to give at that time. I used my 
own cabin, also, for giving a course of logic to the eccle- 

144 Autobiography of Ardibishop U Hat home. 

siastical students, giving them a free day whenever the 
topsails were reefed, the meaning of which they soon 
found out. 

Dr. Heptonstall, the Procurator of the English Bene- 
dictines in London, who had assisted the other priests at 
their departure, remained with us to the last moment. 
He was a most valuable friend, acting gratuitously as 
agent for the Australian Mission in London at all times. 
After seeing all those under my charge settled in their 
quarters, I took a survey of the passengers and a measure of 
the captain. The passengers were a very mixed society, and 
the captain a big, soft sort of man, without much strength 
of character, and I therefore anticipated trouble, which failed 
not to come. The first mate proved incompetent to manage 
the crew, and was therefore put aside; and the second mate, 
a brother of the captain, whom all respected, was put in his 

Twice a day I arranged for the Sisters to come on deck 
for an hour or two, when it soon became understood that 
a part of the deck should be left exclusively for them, 
whilst I always contrived to be near them or with them. 
For there was an American on board with his family, a 
reckless bully, who came on board with one name and 
at sea appeared under another, and who enjoyed making 
mischief in which he sometimes made young and thought- 
less men his tools. Nor was the captain the man to con- 
trol him. As he took the carving, for example, at one 
end of the table, he contrived to insult one person after 
another of humbler condition, by sending them lumps 
of fat, or something they could not well eat. I watched 
and corrected this as much as I could. There was one 
poor woman whose husband was shy, and whom I inter- 
fered to protect on several occasions until at last the 
husband lost all patience and struck the American the 
moment they came on deck. I was in my cabin, but the 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 145 

daughter of the man rushed down to me screaming : " Oh, 

Dr. Ullathorne, do come up, Mr. has struck my father, 

and he has drawn a big knife." I went up, the poor man 
was cowering by the man at the wheel, and the American, 
sitting behind the companion with a malignant face, was 
whetting a large knife on his boot. I walked up and 
down between them, and kept my eyes upon the American 
until he shut up the knife and put it in his pocket. I then 
got the other man down to his cabin ; after which I called 
upon the captain to preserve peace. 

After a time the captain got into trouble. Losing his 
temper one day with the man at the wheel, he struck him. 
The man said very quietly : " Captain, if you strike again, 
I must strike in self-defence." He did strike again, and the 
man returned the blow : he was then put in irons. But 
this was not all : two more men got drunk on grog, im- 
prudently given them by steerage passengers a common 
fault in a long voyage. As they were riotous and backed 
the man already in irons, we had three men ironed on the 
quarter-deck for some days. The captain was very anxious, 
for the men held out, and the crew sympathised with them. 
At last the two senior Sisters asked leave of the captain if 
they might speak to the men, and try to make peace. The 
captain was too glad of the offer, and had the imprudence, 
in his anxiety, to peep through the cabin window to see 
how they succeeded ; and the men perceived him there, 
which spoiled the whole thing. But when the Sisters came 
before the men, they rose and pulled off their caps, with the 
greatest respect, and listened to them with great attention, 
after which one spoke for the rest. " Ladies, we know you 
are true ladies and servants of God, and give your lives to 
the poor people ; and I can't tell you how we and all the 
men respect you. We are not worthy to stand in your 
presence ; but we believe we have been wronged, and all 
our mates desire us to stand firm and to bring our case 

i i 

146 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

into court at Sydney." Their pleading was thus a failure. 
The next day I went of my own motion, and sat among 
them, and said something like this to them. " Now, mates, 
I have been a sailor like you, and have furled many a top- 
sail. My heart always warms to a sailor. The captain 
was wrong to strike the man at the wheel, but I don't think 
you know how to go about these things. I know Sydney 
better than you. If you land as prisoners you will have the 
ship agents, the consignees, against you ; they will get 
learned lawyers, and you'll have nothing but land sharks. 
And you'll get all the worse for holding out against your 
duty. If your irons are taken off, and you return to your 
duty, you will still have your case, if you choose to follow ; 
and won't be in a worse, but in a better position." I then 
went to the captain and said : " Now, captain, if you will 
send your mates to take off those men's chains, and you 
say quietly to them : ' Now, men, will you go to your 
duty ? ' I think they will obey you." This was done, and 
being good-hearted fellows they soon forgot all about their 

Yet, despite these disagreeables, we had many pleasant 
days. The majority of the passengers were simple, in- 
offensive people, only they had not spirit enough to 
combine and protect themselves from being annoyed. We 
had also our diversions. In calm weather we were sur- 
rounded by the albatrosses, some of those majestic birds 
flying in the air, others resting on the waves, some hauled on 
deck with fishing lines, other poor wretches shot with rifle 
balls. Whilst surrounded with them, I read to the Sisters 
Coleridge's " Ancient Mariner;" and they were touched with 
the wondrous tale, and murmured long after the closing 
lines : 

He prayeth best who loveth best 

All things both good and small ; 

For the dear God Who loveth us 

He made and loves them all. 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 147 

Another day, under half a breeze with the sea moderate, 
a sperm whale rose from the depths and struck the ship 
right under her keel. The vessel lurched and hove as if 
upon a rock. The man at the helm thoughtlessly ran to 
look over the counter. A thundering volley of oaths soon 
brought him back with another to help him. The captain 
was terribly excited and the crew in consternation. The 
monster at last disentangled himself and lifted his huge 
head close up to the side of the ship. I got the Sisters up 
to view him, and they could almost touch his head bestrewed 
with weeds and barnacles. He then got himself clear of 
the ship, and how he did snort and blow and spout after 
his accident ! A smart young fellow called out, " I should 
not like to sleep in the same cabin with him ! " " Why 
not ? " " If that is his breathing, what must be his snoring ! " 
The laugh at this joke set all minds free again. The 
captain, though alarmed, was prompt in handling his ship ; 
for though a soft man, he was a good seaman. The only 
thing like this that I remember was when a lad in the 
Mediterranean. It was fine weather, and we were most of 
us below at tea, when the brig was suddenly struck as 
against a rock. We rushed up, and there was a big 
grampus that had struck the vessel amidships ; he raised 
his giant body into the air, fell splash upon the water, and 
went on blowing with redoubled energy. He had left his 
mark, however, on the copper. 

Many years ago a whaler was actually sunk by a sperm 
whale. She was a cranky old craft, commanded by Captain 
Rankin. When a calf-whale is caught the cow-whale will 
follow the ship. It was so in this case ; the mother-whale, 
furious at having lost her young one, attacked the ship, 
came again and again at her hull, until with her ivory horn 
she stove in her timbers, and as the vessel was sinking the 
crew took to their boats and had to pull some three hundred 
miles before reaching the Australian coast : after which 

148 Autobiography of Archbishop UllatJiorne. 

Captain Rankin gave up the sea and established a cheese 
dairy near Bathurst, the only one of any importance in the 
Colony ; and in my days Rankin's cheese was to Austra- 
lians what Stilton is to Englishmen. On December 3ist, 
1838, we reached Sydney, having been five months and 
a-half on the voyage. 



WHEN the Sisters were lowered into the boat by a sus- 
pended chair, to reach the land, all the men spontaneously 
arranged themselves along the bulwarks, to show their 
respect and address them in a low voice in the words : 
" God bless you, ladies ! God bless you, ladies ! " 

I had scarcely landed a day when I found myself the 
object of universal indignation, not only in the Colony, but 
in other penal settlements.* Several other officials from 
the Colonies had given evidence on the convict system as 
well as myself, including the Chief-Justice, Sir Francis 

All manifestations of public feeling were not, however, so hostile. 
The Bishop has forgotten to allude to a great meeting of Catholics, 
held on January 6th, 1839, in the course of which many fervent 
expressions of gratitude were offered in acknowledgment of his 
great services to the Church in Australia. Alluding to his recent visit 
to England, Mr. Justice Therry reminded them that it had been under- 
taken solely for the spiritual benefit of the Catholic community, ai-d 
not for the advancement of any commercial interest. " I will venture 
to say," he continued, " that my reverend friend never once inquired 
how wool sold at Garraway's." In his reply Dr. Ullathorne took up 
this remark. " Mr. Therry has observed," he said, "that whilst in 
Europe I never mentioned the price of wool, though doubtless 1 was 
often questioned about it. This is quite true. ' How is land selling 
in New South Wales?' some persons would ask me ; and I woultf 
reply that I had been so much occupied with the cultivation of sheep 
that I had not paid much attention to land. 'Well, then, how is 
wool selling?' 'Why, you will think it strange,' I would reply, 
' but though my flocks are very numerous, they don't bear wool, and 
if they did we should not fleece them.' " Kenny, "History of Catho- 
licity in Australia," p. 155. 

150 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 

Forbes; and they had spoken in language as plain as mine. 
But I was selected by the newspapers as the scapegoat 
for all. Then, besides my plain evidence, there was the 
little book on the Australian Missions which had been 
given, according to the wont of hostile newspapers, in 
garbled extracts with sinister comments. They concluded, 
however, falsely, that I had abused the system of assigning 
convicts to private service for my own purposes, and with 
a view to obtaining assistance, in which they proclaimed 
that I had succeeded, at the cost of the Colony. It must 
be remembered that the Australian press was to that of 
England, in those days, what Australian was to English 
society. There was no mincing of terms. I had deeply 
wounded both freemen and Emancipists in two most 
sensitive points in their pride and in their pockets. I had 
made the degrading state of things widely known, not 
only at home, but throughout Europe. I had exposed the 
vicious results of the assignment system, yet others had 
gone further than I. The land derived its value from 
the number of convicts placed upon it ; the settlers got 
work without paying wages ; and the more criminals the 
more wealth. Moreover, trade, manufactures, and even 
domestic service, depended on the same resource. 

After the evidence given against it, the system had been 
vigorously attacked by Parliament and by the British 
press, and its reformation was already looming in the 
distance. In the Colonial Legislature the subject of the 
evidence was discussed before my return ; and my dear old 
friend, Attorney-General Plunkett, expressed his regret at 
my vivid style ; and as he was a man of the highest 
character, and the only Catholic in the Assembly, this 
did not mend matters. As my pamphlet had been much 
misrepresented, the Bishop had had a thousand copies of 
it printed in Sydney with the view to correcting these false 
statements by its issue ; but as the assault grew more 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 151 

furious, he did not venture to put it out, and I found all 
the copies carefully stowed away in a storeroom. 

My landing was the signal for the storm to burst out anew, 
and for some six months I had about half a dozen columns 
of abuse allotted daily to my share. No one defended 
me. The Bishop and the clergy were dismayed : all held 
their tongues and so did I except that one of the senior 
clergy, whom I had sent out, told me that they would 
never have peace so long as I stayed in the Colony. Only 
Mr. Judge Therry, who was more versed in the criminal 
history of the Colony than any other man, solemnly de- 
clared to me that every word that I had uttered was true ; 
and that if I retracted a syllable of it he would never 
forgive me. I had another curious testimony in my favour. 
Going one day upon a steamer, a settler, a stranger to me, 
came up and said : " Sir, we shall never forgive you." I 
asked: "Why not?" "Because all that you said is true, 
and it will ruin us. We could have dealt with a pack of 
lies like the Major's." This referred to a man who had 
published an infamous book in England, libelling the most 
respectable persons in the Colony. 

One step, however, we took, which resulted in great 
advantages to the Catholics of the country. Hitherto 
the Catholics had supported the Australian, a paper 
written by a clever barrister, the son of Judge Stephens. 
But this paper attacked us more malignantly than the rest, 
even than that edited by the notorious Dr. Lang, the chief 
Presbyterian minister, a violent politician. Stephens went 
so far as to attack our Bishop, and to hold him up to 
ridicule as well as myself. In consequence of this I went 
to the office, in company with another priest, to let them 
know that if they continued this policy we should establish 
a newspaper of our own. " I," I said, " am fair game, 
but you have no right to attack the Bishop ; what has he 
done to offend you ? " They evidently did not believe 

152 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

that we could establish a newspaper. An apology ap- 
peared for .the attack on the Bishop ; but they adopted my 
words, that " I was fair game." But the Catholics would 
stand this no longer. The leading laymen met, put down 
a sufficient sum of money, and a Catholic paper was 
started, and was edited by Mr. Duncan, a keen-witted, 
clever convert from Presbyterianism, whom I sent out as a 
schoolmaster, and who ultimately rose to be Commissioner 
of Customs. He gave them blow for blow ; and the chief 
value of this was that the Catholics had now an organ 
and a voice which exercised a considerable political 

By desire of the Bishop I took up my abode at Parra- 
matta, as well with the view of building a church there, 
establishing a school, and forming a mission, as to take 
charge of the Sisters of Charity, who were placed in a 
house and garden purchased by Mr. William Davis 
expressly for them. I went over to Sydney at least once 
a week to attend to the correspondence and other business 
with the Government. At that time Sir Richard Bourke 
had resigned, and Sir George Gipps was Governor of the 
Colony. We had business with the Colonial Office; with the 
Surveyor-General's Office, for grants of land ; with the 
Auditor-General's Office, for payment of stipends ; with 
the Treasury ; with the Superintendent of Convicts' 
Office ; and with the military authorities, for attending 
the troops. I left all this correspondence docketed in 
pigeon-holes, but I doubt if it has been preserved. Liver- 
pool was attended from Parramatta, and I had a young 
priest to assist me. At Liverpool, Mass was still said in 
the convict hospital, as we had no chapel there yet. A 
curious incident, the effect of imagination, occurred to 
this young priest on one of his first journeys. He was 
new to the Colony ; and riding one night to Liverpool, 
to officiate next morning, darkness came on, and with 

Autobiography of ArchbisJiop U Hat home. 153 

the darkness an unaccountable fear that the blacks were 
around him. He backed his horse under a tree, and there 
he sat all the night in the rain, expecting every moment 
that the blacks were coming to spear him. I saw on his 
return that he was very pale and worn ; and then the 
story came out. Yet there were no natives about : it was 
entirely the effect of imagination. 

Besides the school, the principal work of the Sisters was 
in the great female prison, called the Female Factory. 
This was the head-quarters of all the female convicts. 
They were assigned to service from there. They were 
returned there for punishment. There were commonly as 
many as 15,000 women in this prison, distributed into 
three wards or classes. The first class consisted of those 
who were ready for assignment ; the second of women 
sent in with illegitimate children when they had no nurse ; 
the third class was of those who had to undergo severe 
punishment, and who, on their entrance, had their hair cut 
off, an operation not unfrequently attended with the most 
violent scenes. As there were generally some five hundred 
Catholics among these unfortunate women, the Sisters went 
to instruct and influence them five evenings in the week. 
They sat in chairs in the midst of one of the yards, and the 
women sat on the flags in groups around them, except 
private interviews were required, when they resorted to 
rooms assigned to their use. It was sometimes difficult to 
prevent these poor creatures from making complete con- 
fession to the nuns. They wanted to unburden their 
minds, and said they would as soon speak to a nun as to a 
priest. The reverence with which the Sisters were regarded 
by all these women was quite remarkable, and the influence 
which they exercised told, not only in the prison, by the 
greater order and the easier management of these numerous 
and excitable women, but after a time it was felt through- 
out the Colony, and was repeatedly expressed by the 

154 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

magistrates from the bench. The whole establishment was 
bettered by their influence. There were no more of those 
violent outbreaks which marked its earlier history. For ex- 
ample, the convict women once broke out to see the races, 
and it took several days to get them all back again. Old Mr. 
Marsden, the senior chaplain of the Colony, magistrate, 
and Chairman of the Committee of Management, told me 
that the women were once in such a state of rebellion that, 
in his perplexity, he sent for a company of soldiers, who 
had no sooner entered the yard and were drawn up than 
the third class, whose occupation was breaking stones, 
began to pelt the men with stones. The captain in com- 
mand said to the magistrate: "What are we to do ? We 
can't fire upon the women or charge them with^the bayonet." 
The clerical magistrate replied : <: Drive them in with their 
own weapons." And the men drove them into their quarters 
with stones, where they were locked up. 

It was my duty to say Mass for the Catholic women once 
a week, and to hear all whom the nuns had prepared and 
sent to me. Although this work was very beneficial, and 
changed the habits of many a poor soul, the labour, which 
was long, and took more than one day in the week, often 
left me completely sick and exhausted. Another duty in 
that factory was of a singular character. When convict 
men obtained their ticket-of-leave and a permit to marry, 
or got their freedom, some of them would come to the 
female prison, exhibit their papers, and ask for a wife. 
This was made known to the women of the first class, who 
were ready for assignment. Some of them would present 
themselves in the room where the man was waiting. After 
taking a survey of them, he would beckon one to him. 
The two had a private conversation, and, if they agreed to 
marry, which was commonly the case, they were married 
by their own clergyman on the spot. It is a fact that many 
of these marriages, especially if they went to live in the 
country, turned out well. 

Autobiography of Archbishop U llatJiorne. 155 

On one occasion, however, there was a great disturbance 
in the factory, of which I was the unconscious cause. The 
long room in which I was giving the Catholic women an 
instruction was only separated by a wall from another long 
room in which the second class were nursing their children. 
Quarrels often arose among them about little things con- 
cerning the wants of their offspring. Suddenly there arose 
such a clamour and a swearing and cursing among these 
women, that it pierced the wall and put the women I was 
instructing into a state of excitement. They murmured, 
groaned, drew long sighs, and expressed their feelings 
aloud. I seized the occasion to improve it. I told them 
they need not affect to be horrified, but had better look at 
themselves in this conduct, for that when my eye was not 
on them they did much the same at certain times of ex- 
citement ; and there I left them. Somehow they got the 
notion into their heads that the disturbance had been got 
up to insult their priest. That night they broke into the 
other ward, and there was such a fight between the two 
classes of women that several of them had to be carried on 
shutters to the hospital, seriously injured. The matron 
told the whole story to me, and the women told it to the 

Sir George and Lady Gipps showed their appreciation of 
the Sisters by repeatedly calling upon them, when at their 
country house at Parramatta ; sent them presents from 
their garden, and would have invited them in a quiet way 
to their mansion, only they received hints that it would be 
against their rule. And here I may mention that, on their 
arrival the Governor expressed to me his readiness to allow 
them pensions ; but as they refused to accept their passage 
and outfit from the Colonial Office, to the great surprise of 
Lord Glenelg, so they declined the offer of the Governor, 
thinking it best to keep themselves independent. 

I forgot to mention in its proper place a rather curious 

156 Autobiography of ArcJibishop Ullathorne 

encounter with Bishop Broughton, after he had been raised 
from the rank of Archdeacon to that of Bishop of Australia. 
There is always a great levee at Government House on the 
Queen's birthday. The Catholic Bishop presented himself 
in rochet and mozzetta. The next day the Protestant 
Bishop sent in a protest to the Governor against 
his having received Dr. Folding in robes appropriate 
to a Roman Catholic bishop. Sir Richard Bourke 
sent for me. He had evidently no personal objec- 
tions, for he said the only thing that struck him was that 
it was a very pretty dress. But he was aware that the 
Bishop was backed in his protest by a party of zealous 
Anglican officials, and as his protest had received but little 
attention he requested that it should be referred to the Home 
Government. Consequently, we sent a document to the 
Governor, in which it was stated that, properly, the robes 
in question were the domestic wear of a Catholic bishop, 
and so far from being appropriate to a bishop, they were 
worn by certain other ecclesiastics of lower rank, and even 
by canons. The two documents were sent home together, 
and in course of time the reply came from the Colonial 
Office, that as the Catholic Bishop had stated that the 
robes worn at the levee were not appropriate to a bishop, 
there was no question to go before the legal adviser of the 
Crown. But, to prevent all further nonsense on the subject, 
the Bishop went henceforth to the levee in coat and feriola. 
I have also omitted stating in its due place, that at the 
close of 1836 I again visited Norfolk Island in company 
with a Special Commission, consisting of judge, lawyers, 
and a military jury. I was received with joy by my former 
penitents, most of whom had persevered in their resolutions, 
and had stood to their religious practices despite of the 
ridicule of their companions. Nearly sixty of them had 
learnt to read their prayers. The Commandant whose 
hospitality I again enjoyed, assured me that crime had con- 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 157 

siderably diminished, and to my delight I found that for the 
fifteen months that had passed since my first visit, there 
was not a single Catholic brought before the judge. 

I admitted the former penitents to Holy Communion ; 
and during the fifteen days that we remained on the island 
three hundred confessions and twelve conversions were the 
reward of my labours. The penitents, now become the 
majority of the Catholics, petitioned to be placed in sepa- 
rate wards, that they might say their prayers together. 
The one with whom 1 had formerly had the greatest diffi- 
culty was now free from chains and working in the garden 
of the Commandant, and every official commended him. 

The assaults of the Press still went on, and every nc\\ 
piece of intelligence that reached us from England, whether 
of reform recommended in the transportation system, or 
of discussions on the subject in Parliament, awakened 
anew the animosity of which I was the object. A certain 
Miss Byrne arrived in the Colony from Ireland, professing 
to be the niece of a priest, and was taken under protection 
by an anti-Catholic party, and employed in lecturing on 
the horrors of Popery. To her lectures I gave a public 
reply. It so happened that two ruffians, looking out for 
plunder in the neighbourhood of Parramatta, met with this 
woman and attacked her on the road where she was walk- 
ing. Fortunately they were caught. My adversaries in 
the Press seized the occasion to associate me with it, aiid 
one flaming article was headed : " Dr. Ullathorne and 
Blood." So great was the excitement caused, that when 
these men were brought before the Supreme Court, the 
judge thought it expedient to warn the jury that I was in 
no wise connected with the case before the trial proceeded.* 

* At this period it would seem as if the public were disposed to 
take part in any attack on Dr. Ullathorne, however unjust or extrava- 
gant. At the desire of the Bishop he had published a sermon "On 
Laying the Foundation-stone of a New Church," which opens with 
the following sentence : " Ceremonies may be said to be the religion 

158 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

Two of these newspapers wrote some gross libels upon 
the Rev. Father Brady, a grave and holy man of mature 
age, who, educated in France, after having served for 
twelve years in the Isle of Bourbon, was placed at Windsor, 
on the Hawksbury, where he built a church. He after- 
wards became the first Bishop of Perth. To these libels I 
replied. But as the editors persevered in their attacks, an 
action was brought against them. One of the papers was 
ruined in consequence. The editor subsequently estab- 
lished a paper in Melbourne, and became a defender of 
the Catholic cause in that Colony. 

Father Geoghehan had been sent to Melbourne to found 
the Church in the Colony of Victoria ; and though the 
gold mines had not yet been opened, he succeeded in 
building a large church. The Bishop wished me to pay 
a visit to Adelaide, the capital of the new province of 
South Australia, with the view of ascertaining what 
Catholics there were in that Colony and what could be 
done for them. Father Lynch, one of the young priests 
that I had brought from Ireland, took my place at Parra- 
matta; and according to my custom, I took the first vessel 
that offered. She was a small coasting schooner, and the 
only passengers [ found on board were an uneducated 
woman with a number of children who occupied the main 
cabin. Leaning over the bulwarks, I was thinking what 
a dreary passage of some eight hundred miles I should 
have, when a respectable young man came and leant near 
me. Turning to me, he said : " The last time we met was 

of the body, as faith is the religion of the mind, and prayer and the 
love of God the religion of the heart." No sooner did it appear than 
Dr. Lang, the minister of the chief Scottish church in the Colony, 
assailed it, and sought to expose the (supposed) monstrous admission 
of the assertion that " Ceremonies are the religion of the body? by 
which words, apart from the context, he represented the meaning of 
the writer to be that they were the religion of the body Catholic ; and 
on this supposition raised a fabric of solemn invective against a 
system so unspiritual. 

Autobiography of Archbishop UUatJiorne. 159 

at the hotel by the leaning tower of Bologna, and your 
conversation 'at that table that day decided me on settling 
in Australia. I am on my way to my property at 
Adelaide." I then remembered him, and was glad of 
someone to converse with. When we landed at Adelaide, 
the city, a few miles from the Port, was in the fourth year 
from its foundation. Like the old Etruscan cities, it had 
been regularly laid out from the first in a square. The 
straight streets were, many of them, only marked out by 
rough roads and chippings on the trees ; and the houses 
were, here and there, not yet brought into line. I was 
hospitably received by Mr. and Mrs. Philips and their 
family, whose house, beautifully situated, looked over the 
great level plain, rich with grass and most beautiful flowers, 
upon the precipitous range of Mount Lofty. My first 
point was to see the Governor ; my second to obtain a 
room in which to assemble the Catholic population. I 
wrote to the Governor's Secretary, but obstacles were 
put into the way of an audience on pleas that seemed to 
me trifling. I next called with Mr. Philips on the Chief 
Commissioner : for the Colony was founded by an associa- 
tion on speculation, and was under the management of 
their Commissioners, as well as under the rule of Colonel 
Gawler, the Governor appointed by the Colonial Office. 
The Chief Commissioner at that time was a Scotch Presby- 
terian. I asked leave for the use of a building which had 
been lent to every denomination until they had a place of 
worship of their own. I was received respectfully, but 
dryly, and was told that I should receive an answer by 
letter. The answer was a refusal, without reason assigned. 
It was evident that the authorities were against the presence 
of a Catholic priest, if they could manage it. The refusal 
soon got wind among the population ; and a Protestant, 
who kept a china shop, was so indignant at this treatment, 
that he offered to put his china into his cellars and to give 

160 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

up his shop to our use twice a week, on Sundays and 
Thursdays. There I erected an altar and said Mass, 
preaching and catechising morning and evening on those 
two days in the week. I found that the Catholics were not 
more than fifty in number. 

I now wrote direct to the Governor, informed his Ex- 
cellency of my official position in the Australian Colonies, 
and that I had brought out a letter from the Colonial 
Office recommending me to the Governors of those 
Colonies. I requested the honour of an audience. This 
was at once granted, but the interview was very formal. I 
got no more notice from Government House than this 
quarter of an hour's conversation. As there were no con- 
victs in this Colony there was no ground for applying to 
the Government for the maintenance of a priest. Besides 
which, the Bishop had wisely made it a rule never to put 
one priest alone where he could not be in a position to visit 
another priest the same day. So that in Norfolk Island, 
when it came to have a chaplain, two priests were placed 
together. And in the vast and thinly populated districts 
of the interior of New South Wales, two priests were 
placed together, one of whom remained at home whilst the 
other travelled through half the territory; and, on his return, 
the other started through his course over the other half of 
the district, visiting all the settlements and holding stations 
wherever the people could be gathered together. I re- 
member one priest reporting from the Mimeroo Plains, that 
in the course of a year he and his companion had travelled 
10,000 square miles. 

I made one very interesting acquaintance in Adelaide. 
Next door to my host resided Captain Sturt, the cele- 
brated Australian explorer, who had then nearly lost his 
sight from what he had gone through. From him I 
learnt many interesting details of his expeditions. I was 
particularly struck with his account of the time when, 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 161 

after a long course of thirst, they had to drink the blood of 
their horses. Their men lay prostrate and groaning ; not 
excited, they were past that, but half dead, and despairing. 
He wondered how ever he was able to keep himself up. 

After baptising the last-born child of my hospitable 
hosts, I bade them farewell and returned to Sydney. 
After that youngest daughter had been baptised I said : 
" Now, remember, this child must be a nun." Twenty- 
years after Mrs. Philips wrote to me from Sydney, and 
reminding me of what I had said, informed me that this 
child had actually become a Benedictine nun in the Con- 
vent near Parramatta. 

I might as well tell here how the Mission to South 
Australia finally came about. On the first establishment 
of the Australian Hierarchy, of which more hereafter, the 
Holy See appointed me to Adelaide, but I succeeded in 
obtaining exemption from the appointment. The Rev. 
Francis Murphy was then appointed ; but as there were no 
means in the Colony for his maintenance, a collection was 
being made in New South Wales to aid the first beginning. 
Just at that time Mr. Leigh, of Woodchester, who, after his 
conversion, was residing at Leamington, called on me at 
Coventry and expressed his desire to found a Catholic 
bishopric at Adelaide. He then explained that he had 
some property there, and had once intended to give one 
acre of town allotment in Adelaide and a hundred acres in 
the country, together with the sum of 4,000 towards found- 
ing a Protestant bishopric ; but that since his conversion he 
wished to give this donation towards the Catholic bishopric. 
I said to him : " This is most providential, for a bishop has 
been appointed to Adelaide, whilst at present there is not 
even support for a priest." Not only did Mr. Leigh carry 
out his intention, but he also obtained plans for a small 
cathedral, which was erected on his town grant. 

I puzzled my friends in Sydney by telling them that the 


1 62 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 

streets in Adelaide were fitter for the study of astronomy 
than for commerce. The fact was that miles of newly 
marked-out streets were unmade, and after heavy Australian 
rain were full of pools of water, through which my good 
hostess waded to the china shop for evening service, and in 
which the brilliant stars of the southern hemisphere were 

At this time I wrote my " Reply to Judge Burton," the 
most important of my Colonial publications ; for it has 
become the text-book for the early Catholic history of New 
South Wales. Judge Burton had been a sailor in his youth, 
as well as myself, and he was full of Protestant zeal. On 
a visit to England he had published a large book, in which 
he advocated Protestant ascendancy in the Colony ; main- 
tained the old scheme of devoting one-seventh of the lands 
of the Colony to the maintenance of the Protestant Church 
and Protestant education ; and in which he had not spared 
us. He had also delivered certain judgments from the 
bench, reversed, indeed, afterwards, by his brother judges 
sitting in banco ; but which, had they stood, would have 
invalidated all Catholic marriages up to a recent period, 
would have illegitimised the children of those marriages, 
and have upset the tenure of their property. This he had 
done on the mere plea of the applicability of English laws, 
which were in no wise applicable to the Colony. 

On these two themes I wrote, and not only handled his 
delinquencies plainly, but with considerable severity ; for 
the Judge had shown a strong animus, and it was neces- 
sary to produce an impression. The pamphlet did produce 
a sensation. Judge Burton was still in England, and one 
of his brother judges sent him the sheets as they were 
printed. We took care to send several copies to the 
Colonial Office in England, and to the library of the House 
of Commons. He returned just before I left the Colony. 
His friends gave him a public dinner, and did their best 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathornc. 163 

to smooth things over. But soon after he was removed to 
India, where he remained eighteen years : after which he 
returned as Chief Justice to Sydney for a time. But this 
stern policy did not improve the feelings of the High 
Church people towards me ; nor did the lawyers, as a 
body, like to have one of their ornaments attacked. A 
leading barrister, who ventured to say at a public meeting 
that this pamphlet was only unanswerable because no one 
thought it worth answering, was hissed into silence by the 
general sense of the assembly. 

Another conflict in which I was concerned was with the 
Tract Society. This was something new in our Colonial 
history. Hitherto we had been accustomed to go on our 
own way without interference. But through Sir Richard 
Bourke's Act providing for religion, we had an influx of 
clergy of all kinds, and this brought in a good deal of old 
English anti-Catholic prejudice, to which we had hitherto 
been strangers ; and we had to assert that position of per- 
fect equality which the policy of the Government had 
assigned to us. From the Tract Society anti-Catholic 
tracts began to be distributed even at the doors of Catholic 
houses. We noticed that even Government officials made 
themselves active in this Society ; and not only subscribed 
to it, but made speeches in its assemblies. To meet this 
and other machinations, we established a Catholic Associa- 
tion, with monthly meetings. The Bishop generally pre- 
sided, and opened the subject, leaving the exposition and 
enforcement to me, who had a previous understanding 
with the chief speakers as to how the discussion was to be 
guided to its conclusion. Thus when these tracts began to 
fly about I advised the Catholics to accept the next that 
was offered and bring it to me. A quantity came. 1 then 
made extracts from them of passages that were insulting 
to Catholics, and drew up a list of the Government officials 
who supported the Society. We then called a great meet- 

164 Atitobiography of Archbishop Vllathornc. 

ing of the Catholic population and proposed to them that, 
as this Tract Society was promoting enmity and division 
between two classes of Her Majesty's subjects, and as 
several of the Government officials, instead of promoting 
peace, were co-operating in this method of disturbing the 
peace of society, a list of those gentlemen, together with 
extracts from those tracts, should be forwarded to Her 
Majesty's Secretary of State for the Colonies. This was 
done, and it cleared the rooms of the Society of these 

The Bishop wished me to take the lead in this conflict, 
to receive all blows aimed at his authority, and thus to 
keep the Episcopal office free from attack. This I readily 
assented to as proper to the office of Vicar-General. But 
the Press coupled all this with my evidence on the Trans- 
portation system, and dubbed me with the title of the Very 
Rev. Agitator-General of New South Wales. 

In the year 1838, Bishop Pompallier arrived in Sydney 
from France, on his way to begin the Mission in the 
Islands of Oceanica, and was accompanied by several 
Fathers of the Marist Institution. From Sydney they pro- 
ceeded to New Zealand, where they first began their 
labours. And this recalls to mind the conversion of a New 
Zealand chief, which took place some years before in 
Sydney. A worthy Irishman wished to marry the daughter 
of this chief, but being a truly religious man desired first to 
make her a Christian. He brought her and her father over 
to Sydney, and then came and told the Bishop that he 
wished to present them to him, in the hope of their con- 
version. The Bishop fixed the time, and received them in 
rochet and mozzetta, attended by two priests. The Irish- 
man acted as interpreter. The man was told that the Chief 
of the Christians received with respect the Chief of the 
Maori, which was duly acknowledged. After some more 
conversation in the way of politeness, the Bishop took a 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 165 

large crucifix and held it before his eyes. The chief gazed 
at it for some time, after which the Bishop said : " You are 
accustomed to revenge the wrongs of your tribe." The 
chief nodded his head. " And your people are accus- 
tomed to bear torture bravely ? " Again he nodded 
his head. " Well, this is a case of revenge, and a 
case of torture. Did you ever see torture like this?" 
Still gazing, the chief shook his head. Then the Bishop 
slowly said, and the Irishman interpreted: "The Great 
God of Heaven, Who made all men, was angry with man, 
and would not destroy him. But the Great God had a 
Son like Himself, and He made a man of Him, and He 
revenged the wickedness of men on His Son. And this 
was what His Son suffered. And for the sake of what 
His Son suffered, He is ready to pardon every man who 
begs pardon of Him and obeys His laws." The chief was 
deeply moved and tears flowed from his eyes. The 
essential point of the mystery of Redemption had entered 
his mind. He and his daughter received a course of in- 
struction, were baptised, and the daughter married to the 

I was thinking over this incident, before writing it, in the 
year 1888, when 1 received a visit from my friend, Dr. 
Redwood, Archbishop of Wellington. To him I repeated 
what I have just written. The Archbishop asked : " Do 
you remember the name of that Irishman ? " I confessed 
that I could not recall it. " Was it Paynton ?" " Now you 
mention it, I am confident that was his name." "Then," 
said the Archbishop, " he and his family have always been 
good practical Catholics, and the chief as well. It was in 
his house that Bishop Pompallier was first received on his 
landing. It was in that house that he said the first Mass 
ever said in New Zealand. And that house was always 
looked on with respect by all the Catholics, until it was 
burnt down not so very long ago." 

1 66 A ulobiography of A rchbishop Uliathornc. 

Later on came another group of Marist Fathers, on 
their way to the South Sea Missions. And among them I 
particularly remember Father Batallion, who converted the 
Wallis Islands, became the first Bishop of Central Oceanica, 
and whose life has been recently published in France. I 
also remember making the acquaintance of the Blessed 
Father Chanel, who was martyred for the faith in the 
Island of Futuna, and who has been recently beatified : 
but wherever met, I do not remember, unless it were in 
New Zealand. I also remember calling upon the Bishop 
and his companions, destined for New Guinea, and whisper- 
ing to Dr. Heptonstall : " Look well at the heads of those 
men." When we had left them, Dr. Heptonstall asked : 
" Why did you tell me to look at those men's heads ? " 
" Because," I replied, " I know something of the savage 
race of New Guinea, and am confident that some of their 
heads will be knocked off before twelve months are out." 
And it did occur, that landing in a boat, from the vessel 
that took them from Sydney, the savages met them in the 
water with their clubs, battered the Bishop's head to pieces 
and his body was taken back to Sydney. 

In the year 1841 the foundation was laid of a second 
church in Sydney, the history of which is truly interesting. 
Mr. William Davis, the same worthy man who had given 
the first convent at Parramatta, offered his own house and 
garden as a site in Sydney on which to build a church. 
That house had a remarkable history. It was the house 
in which Father Flynn had officiated until he was un- 
lawfully seized, committed to jail, and sent out of the 
country. He was arrested so suddenly that he was un- 
able to consume the Blessed Sacrament. That was left 
in the house of Mr. Davis, and the Catholics went there 
on Sundays to say their prayers. This continued for two 
years, there being no priest in the Colony, until a French 
expedition of discovery arrived ; when the chaplain of the 

Antobiograpliy of Arc/tin shop U Hat J ionic. 167 

expedition said Mass in the house, and consumed the 
Host that had been left. This house may therefore be 
considered to have been the first Catholic chapel in 
Australia. It was situated on elevated ground close by 
St. Philip's, at that time, too, the only Protestant church 
in Sydney. 

Mr. Davis was a truly religious man. Transported on 
the charge of having made pikes for the insurrectionists of 
Ireland in 1798, for he was a blacksmith by trade, he had 
suffered much for his faith. Twice he had been flogged 
for refusing to go to the Protestant service, and for the 
same refusal was so long imprisoned in a black hole that 
he almost lost his sight. But no sooner had he obtained 
his freedom, than by his industry and integrity, where 
good mechanics were few, he began to succeed in his 
trade. Then his house became like that of Obededom, 
and God blessed him, so that when I first became ac- 
quainted with him he had become a man of landed 
property, and had accumulated a considerable amount of 
wealth, and having no immediate dependents was much 
disposed to assist the advance of religion. How often 
have I heard him exclaim, in his earnest simplicity : " I 
love the Church." 

It happened that at this time a scheme was being 
agitated for establishing a general system of elementary 
education on conditions which no Catholic could have 
accepted ; in consequence of which, the Bishop and 
myself had an interview with the Governor, Sir George 
Gipps, on the subject. After considerable discussion, the 
Governor brought the interview abruptly to a conclusion 
by saying: "In short, I must adhere to the strongest 
party, and I don't think that you are the strongest." After 
that we determined to make a public demonstration ; for 
we knew that, if not the strongest by numbers, we were by 
our union. We took the opportunity of laying the foun- 

1 68 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathornc. 

dation of St. Patrick's Church. The Catholic population 
was in a state of exalted enthusiasm, in looking forward to 
it. The procession started from the Cathedral, and had to 
pass through the principal parts of the town. Bands of 
music were provided. The cross preceded, magnificent 
banners following along the line. Three hundred girls 
clothed in white followed the cross, the rest of the children 
forming a long line. Then came the Catholic people, who 
were 14,000 out of a population of 40,000. After them the 
acolytes and the clergy in their sacerdotal vestments, whilst 
the procession was closed by the Bishop in mitre and cope 
with his attendants. Such a procession had never been 
seen in Australia. The whole population filled the streets, 
and as we reached the place of the new church, on one of 
the highest points in Sydney, by every descent you might 
have walked on the heads of the people, among whom 
voices were heard saying: "We can't do this; we must 
consent to come second." The foundation-stone was 
suspended in the air, visible to the multitude. At the 
Bishop's request I was mounted upon it, and thence I gave 
the touching history of the house which had now dis- 
appeared, which had been the centre of Catholic devotion 
in our days of trial and persecution, and which had now 
made way for the church which was there to rise on the 
most elevated point in Sydney. It was on the very 
catacombs of the Catholics that this church was to repose. 

This was a revelation to the Colony of our strength, and 
our reply to the Governor's remark. It must be remembered 
that, in those days, we had to meet the long cherished 
traditions of Protestant supremacy, and to assert that 
equality before the law, which the law itself had given us. 


ON my final return from the Australian Mission a good 
deal of curiosity was awakened as to the reason for this step. 
It was widely known that I had much to do with the or- 
ganisation of the Church in that remote country, and this 
brought me sundry letters of inquiry from friends, to which 
I gave but general answers : for I did not think it ex- 
pedient at the time, when I had returned to monastic 
obedience, to indulge what I looked upon as mere 
curiosity. But I have the document before me at this 
moment, in the year 1889, in which I clearly laid my 
reasons before Bishop Folding in the year 1840. 

The mission next in importance to that of New South 
Wales, in those days, was that of Van Dieman's Land, now 
Tasmania. It was in a very unsatisfactory state, was a 
convict settlement, and was a thousand miles away from 
Sydney. Hence it could neither be properly superin- 
tended nor, properly, be provided for by the Bishop of 
Sydney. This had long dwelt on my mind, and I urged 
upon the attention of the Bishop, repeatedly, how necessary 
it had become that he should apply to the Holy See for 
the appointment of a Bishop to Van Dieman's Land. But 
absorbed as the Bishop was in missionary work, especially 
among the convicts, it was long before he entered into the 
plan. But when at last he saw the necessity of another 
Bishop clearly, he showed me a list of names recommended 

170 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 

for that office, and I found my own at the head of it. I at 
once declared that I could not accept of it. I had seen suf- 
ficient of bishops, I said, to compassionate them, but not 
to envy them ; and that unless his Lordship consented to 
remove my name, with the understanding that it was not 
to be replaced, I should have no resource left me but to 
return to my monastery in England. An additional, 
though accidental reason, was, that owing to a long course 
of anxieties I was at that time much wasted and worn down 
in health ; so much so that, in looking back to that time, I 
find that in the speeches I had to make in public assemblies, 
I had repeatedly to apologise for brevity on that account. 
Persons from England who had met me, reported to my 
friends there how weary and worn I looked : for I had 
many solicitudes and many things to combat which it is 
unnecessary here to record. It was a maxim of the 
Bishop, as I have already stated, that it was the business 
of the Vicar-General to meet all the blows, and to keep his 
principal in the good odour of peaceful reputation. I will 
give one or two examples. 

On St. George's Day the English gentlemen of the 
Colony gave a great dinner to the Irish and Scotch. The 
chairman invited the Bishop and myself as his guests. 
The Bishop declined appearing, but wished me to go as his 
representative. I went accordingly. I had to return thanks 
for the Bishop and the clergy. What I said was warmly 
applauded, until I happened to allude to our great ancestry 
as a Church. It was but a transient remark, nor was it 
noticed except by an Indian judge, who happened to be 
there as a guest. But he, in his anti-Catholic feeling, gave 
vent to some sour exclamations, to everyone's annoyance. 
Immediately opposite him sat the Chevalier Dillon, a 
well-known Irishman, who had been titled by the King of 
France for having discovered the remains of the celebrated 
navigator, La Perouse, on the Fiji Islands. Dillon seized 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ulhithorne. 171 

hold of an apple, and said to the judge : " If you don't stop, 
I'll drive this down your throat !" This quieted the judge, 
and there the matter ended. As soon as I was seated, I 
turned to my next neighbour, Captain (afterwards General) 
England, a man of good judgment, and said : " Tell me 
frankly; did I say anything inappropriate?" "Upon my 
honour," he replied, " if I thought so I would tell you ; but 
I thought nothing of the kind." But the hostile papers, 
ever on the look out for the old offender, represented me 
as having caused what approached near to a fracas among 
gentlemen. It might have been well to have avoided the 
allusion in a mixed company, but in the warmth of 
speaking one sometimes lets slip what is not acceptable lo 
all hearers. 

The laying the foundation-stone of St. Patrick's Church 
had long been looked forward to. Collections for the 
building had been made for years, committees were 
formed, and weekly meetings held. As the time ap- 
proached a warm national feeling had been raised among 
the Irish-Catholic population, and they resolved to make 
an exhibition of national emblems. Hitherto national 
distinctions had been instinctively avoided in the Colony ; 
all prided themselves on being Australians. The rumours 
afloat about this exhibition of nationality alarmed the 
governing authorities ; they were afraid of its ending in 
reprisals, and of its becoming the beginning of national 
parties. The Governor sent for the chief police magistrate 
and expressed to him his apprehensions. The magistrate 
came to me, and conjured me to prevent the religious pro- 
cession from being turned into a national demonstration. 
" Suppose," he said, "that orange flags are lifted up, what 
will be the state of Sydney? Hitherto we have all gone 
on so peacefully together." I asked the opinion of the 
Attorney and Solicitor-General, both Irish Catholics, and 
our leading men among the laity. They thought that, 

172 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

however innocently intended, things were going too far. 
I felt compelled to take the matter in hand, and made full 
representations to the Bishop. His Lordship felt reluctant 
to oppose the ardent feelings of the people. I retired to 
another room and wrote him a letter, stating that I had 
now done all I could in the way of representation, both 
to himself and to the clergy, and felt myself free from 
further responsibility ; but that, as the whole object of 
the procession was to conduct his Lordship to the founda- 
tion-stone, and not to make a national demonstration, I 
felt that the representations of the authorities ought to be 
attended to. He then sent for me, and asked what I recom- 
mended, as he did not see his way. To this I replied that, 
without compromising him, if he would leave it to me I 
thought I could find a way through the difficulty. And 
it was left to my judgment. 

This was the eve of the day appointed for the ceremony 
A meeting of the general committee was then being held, 
and I got Mr. Therry, the Solicitor-General, and some other 
gentlemen, to accompany me to the assembly. It was 
densely crowded, and excited speeches were going on. In 
a speech of an hour's length I gradually worked the as- 
sembly round until I came to the point : and then the 
chief leader of the popular voice arose, and called upon the 
assembly to comply with my advice, and for the sake of 
peace to withhold from the procession those marked national 
emblems, however much they had cost ; for peace was 
better. Thus the point was gained. Mr. Therry, who had 
been one of O'Connell's leaders in the great meetings for 
Emancipation, was much struck with the whole affair, and 
with the way in which that vehement excitement in one 
direction was turned, by degrees, into another. When I 
informed the Bishop of the result, he expressed great satis- 
faction, and declared that it set his mind in peace. How 
successful that procession was, as a Catholic demonstration, 
I have already stated. 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 173 

After various plans had been considered, Bishop Folding 
decided to go himself to Rome, and obtain what further 
assistance he could of men from England and Ireland. As 
there was still reason to apprehend that my name might be 
put before the Holy See for Van Dieman's Land, I decided 
to accompany him to England ; and Dr. Gregory com- 
pleted the party as attendant on the Bishop. 

We engaged our passage in a Chilian brig, bound, in the 
first instance, for Korarika, in the Bay of Islands, New Zea- 
land, our object being to visit Bishop Pompallier and his 
missioners in that settlement ; the French Bishop having 
long wished for such a visit, for the sake of the influence on 
the natives. Thence we were to sail for Talcuhana, in Chili, 
with the intention of riding over the Pampas across South 
America, and taking shipping for England on the other 
side. For this purpose we had taken English saddles as 
part of our equipment 

The Catholics prepared a magnificent demonstration in 
honour of the Bishop on his departure, and a large sum of 
money was collected to cover the expenses of his journeys. 
I was asked what I should like, but I told the delegates that 
I would on no account interfere with the testimonial to the 
Bishop ; they might give me some trifle as a remembrance, 
such as a snuff-box. And I was consequently presented 
with an address accompanied with a snuff-box filled with 

On the morning of departure I said Mass for the nuns 
whom I had brought to the Colony, now increased in 
number, who had come from Parramatta to Sydney for 
a blessing, and to bid us farewell. I had hitherto had the 
entire guidance of them, and I loved them in God as a 
father loves his children. Dear souls, it was a touching 
scene, and they wept the whole Mass over their separation 
from their friend and guide. It is only a fortnight from 
writing this that I celebrated with them, the breadth of 

174 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home, 

the world between us, a singular jubilee of thanksgiving. 
They wrote to remind me that on December 3ist, 1888, 
it would be fifty years since I firsr landed them in Sydney, 
and asked me to join them in their thanksgiving for all 
the benefits they had received, and, I may add, for all the 
good God had enabled them to do during those past fifty 
years. But the most interesting part of their letters re- 
corded the present state of their Congregation in Australia. 

There are now 1 10 members. They have a large hospital 
in Sydney, with 150 beds, which is well supported; another 
hospital in Parramatta in the house in which I placed 
them; an orphanage at Hobart; a young ladies' college 
in a well-constructed building ; and they teach 3,000 
children besides. They are also about to erect a hospital 
at Melbourne, towards which they have received a sump- 
tuous offering. Of the five members who landed with me, 
one alone survives, who is still Superior of the orphanage, 
at the advanced age of eighty-nine years. Here is a theme 
for gratitude. 

The departure was marked by an extraordinary scene. 
The Catholics accompanied the Bishop from the Cathedral 
to the harbour, the population crowded the shore, the ships 
hoisted their colours, salutes were fired, and steamers, with 
the chief Catholics on board, with bands of music, accom- 
panied the vessel to the Head. The affectionate respect 
shown the Bishop was loud and hearty on all sides. At 
last we were alone on the wide sea, and the coast of 
Australia vanished from our eyes. 

After we had become familiar with the captain, who was 
an Englishman, and part owner, naturalised in Chili, and 
who had sailed with Lord Dundonald in his famous 
conflicts with the Spaniards, he said to me one day : " I was 
never more surprised than when I first met such a great 
man as you are. From all I had heard and read in the 
newspapers I expected to meet a great, big-boned man, 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathornc* 175 

with a passionate temper, and a big shillalah in his hand." 
So, on meeting some military officers from India, after 
acquaintance, they said laughingly : " We know all about 
you in India ; your Bishop is an angel, but you are the 

One thing I did before I left Sydney, which ought to be 
recorded. It was something very obvious, to me at least, 
but no one else seemed to see it. A great deal of specu- 
lation was going on, and land in Sydney and other townships 
rose enormously in favourable positions. It was said that 
land had been sold in one principal street at a higher price 
per foot than it had ever been sold at that time, in 
Cheapside, London. Many millions of paper money had 
floated from the banks : but at that time the Government 
Gazette " published the amount of specie in the Colony, 
which did not amount to more than ^"600,000. Anyone 
with a little knowledge of finance ought to have seen the 
consequence : but no notice was taken of it. I then wrote 
three letters in the Australian CJironicle, the Catholic paper, 
addressed respectively to his Excellency the Governor, to 
the city of Sydney, and to the Colony at large, in which 
I predicted that great troubles were in the wind, and that 
a great deal of property must soon change hands. I regret 
I have not a copy of those letters, I lent them to the British 
Consul at Talcuhana and never recovered them. They 
were received with incredulity ; but after a time came the 
crash, and many failures. Land ran down rapidly in price, 
and sheep, the staple of the Colony, came from twenty-five 
to five shillings a head, and even to half-a-crown. Nor did 
the Colony fully recover itself until the discovery of gold. 
Meeting my old friend, Sir Roger Therry, long years after, 
on his return to England, he said : " We did not believe your 
letters, we were rather amused at them : but we were 
a wfully punished." 

If I were asked how I was affected by those long and 

176 .Autobiography of ArcJibishop Ullathorne. 

persistent attacks of the Press, by the opinion thus gene- 
rated, though it never touched the Catholic circle, I should 
say that, being then a young man I was not without an 
annoying consciousness of it, especially as I was left to 
bear the brunt alone ; yet it was less the object of thought 
than of a certain dull pressure as from the enduring of 
hostile elements. But it was a valuable training, as it made 
me indifferent to public opinion, where duty was concerned, 
for the rest of my life. In my book " On the Management 
of Criminals " I have spoken of the way in which the Colony 
ultimately did me justice. The time at last came when all 
the inhabitants of New South Wales, as well as of the other 
Australian Colonies, came round to my way of thinking. 
I was probably sitting in my room at Birmingham pursuing 
some tranquil occupation, unconscious of what was passing 
at Sydney, when 100,000 people met under their leaders 
from all parts of the Colony in that park I had so often 
traversed in front of that Cathedral where I had minis- 
tered to proclaim with one voice the convict system an 
abomination and a pollution of the land, which must be got 
rid of at all cost, and to utter the solemn resolve that never 
again would they allow a convict ship to touch their shores.* 
Among the speakers who addressed that great assembly 
was my old friend, Archdeacon McEncroe. Then arose 
three cheers for the old advocate of their new views ! Such 
is opinion, that queen of the world who has so often to 
revise her judgments. 

*This meeting was held at Sydney in the year 1850. 


WE left Sydney on the brig Orion, on November i6th, 
1840. Captain Sanders, a warm-hearted man, not only 
paid us every attention, but entertained us greatly with his 
anecdotes of Lord Dundonald and the War of Independ- 
ence. I took advantage of his collection of Spanish 
books ; and after about a fortnight's sail we cast anchor 
before Korarika, in the Bay of Islands. The town at that 
time consisted of a native pah, a small British settlement, 
and the French Mission. We were met on board by Mr. 
Waterton, brother of the celebrated naturalist, who was 
residing with the missioners and spent his time in 
botanical excursions. On reaching the mission house we 
found that Bishop Pompallier was absent on a tour among 
the islands of the Pacific in his little schooner. The 
Fathers of the Marist Congregation, who had received our 
Bishop's hospitality on their way out, received us with joy. 
Their residence was of wood, and their little wooden 
church, bright with green paint, stood adjoining : small 
as it was, it had its font, confessional, and all appointments 
complete. Soon after our arrival the evening service 
began for the native tribes, and, of course, we attended 
the service in the church. A chief object of our visit was 
to remove an impression made by the Anglican and 
Wesleyan missioners upon the natives, that the Catholic 
religion was not the religion of Englishmen, but the 
religion of a people with whom they had nothing to do. 


178 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

This statement they had embellished with fantastic stories 
of the old anti-Catholic type, seasoned for the New 
Zealand palate with horrible stories of the cast of Foxe's 
" Book of Martyrs." To give an example : An Irish 
gentleman went to New Zealand with the view of 
purchasing land, and on his return to Sydney he told me 
that as he was travelling about, with a native Catholic as a 
guide, he came upon a crowd of natives listening to a man 
who was preaching to them from a stump. He had a 
flaming torch in his hand, which he waved about with 
great energy. My friend asked the native guide to explain 
what he was saying, and this was the substance of it. He 
told them that the Catholics Picopos he called them 
were a cruel people, who worshipped wooden gods. That 
they came from a place called Roma ; and that at Roma 
they tore people to pieces with wild horses if they would 
not be Catholics ; and they took fire and burnt them under 
their arms and on their bodies, which acts he imitated with 
his torch. In short, he applied the history of the pagan 
persecutions to the Roman Catholics. How the Fathers 
were looked upon by people thus instructed I had an 
opportunity of observing. I was walking on the hills with 
some of them when we came near to a large wooden 
school used by some English missioners. I expressed a 
curiosity to see it, and we went towards it. But the 
moment the native women inside caught sight of the 
soutanes and three-cornered hats of the Fathers they 
rushed up in a fury and slammed the door against them. 

One Father read the prayers before the altar in the 
native language, which the people answered, and then 
another Father intoned the hymn, which the people took 
up. It was the O Filii et Filice, adapted to the New 
Zealand language, but in the old simple notes. How they 
did sing ! with voices harsh, stentorian, and vehement, 
beyond European comprehension. They had but few notes 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 179 

and no music in their voices. They sang in jerks. The 
Alleluias that end the stanzas became Arr-a-oo-yah. With 
a strong grinding on the rr, and a great jerk at the final 
yah. But however vehement, as I have always observed 
among the South Sea Islanders, they drop their voices to 
their lowest pitch at the end of their song, as if exhausted 
by the effort, which makes all their singing plaintive. 
After this earnest act of devotion, the senior missioner 
addressed them. We could not understand what he said, 
but he every now and then pointed to us, and we heard the 
word picopo ; he then pointed to himself, and again we heard 
the word picopo^ and all eyes were bent upon him. After 
the service we asked the Father the meaning of the word 
picopo. He then explained that picopo meant bishop 
and also meant Catholic. When Bishop Pompallier 
began his mission he had to invent new words for the 
expression of ideas new to his neophytes. Their language, 
chiefly formed of vowels and liquids, contained but thirteen 
letters, and there was in it the peculiarity that two con- 
sonants could not be brought together and that every word 
must end with a vowel. The word bishop, or Mque, was 
unpronounceable, so that he took the Latin word episcopus, 
and changed it into picopo to designate himself, and it 
became the name of his religion as well. The Father was 
explaining to the natives how they saw before their eyes 
English Catholics as well as French Catholics. When he 
spoke of English Catholics he called them Picopo poroyaxono 
(poroyaxono meaning an Englishman, and taken from Port 
Jackson, the harbour of Sydney, which many of them had 
visited in the whaling ships) ; but French Catholics he 
called Picopo Wee wee, a name given them by the natives 
from their so constantly repeating the words Oui> out. 

We visited the tribe the same evening, in their low huts, 
creeping inside, where we could sit, but not stand. The 
i, who form thj principal race, are a magnificent race 

I So Autobiography of ArdibisJiop Vllathorne. 

in height, strength, and intelligence. They could all read 
and write, even at that time. When a few obtained these 
acquirements they rapidly communicated them to the rest 
Their chiefs were singularly fine looking men, and the tattoo 
on their faces gave depth to their expression. The women 
were coarse in features for their sex, but were animated 
with an incessant cheerfulness that often broke into laughter. 
The costume of both sexes was still the old woven mats, 
often coloured in good taste. We found the chief under 
taboo; having had his hair cut that day he was prohibited 
from using his hands until the day following. He politely 
explained that he could not rise, for the same reason, but 
must keep seated with his hands across his breast.* His 
wife sat on one side of him and his daughter on the other, 
feeding him with his supper. A skillet, containing about 
half a peck of boiled potatoes, stood before him ; his wife 
peeled one with her fingers and put it into his mouth, then 
his daughter peeled another, and put that into his mouth. 
So the meal went on, irresistibly reminding me of his mouth 
being a potato trap. The potatoes of New Zealand are 
among the largest and best in the world, but dark in colour.-)* 
He was a grand specimen of his race, and was as polite as 
circumstances would allow, and explained to us that if he 

* The Bishop does not say whether it was with this or another chief 
that he enjoyed the honour of rubbing noses. He found the illustrious 
nose very blue and very cold. In his last illness, when someone spoke 
of his feeling cold, he replied with his usual humour, " Not so cold as 
the nose of a New Zealand chief; that is the coldest object in nature 
that I know of." 

t Not only the potatoes, but the pork also of New Zealand was often 
praised by the Bishop as superior to anything of the kind known in 
Europe. He used to relate how both these comestibles figured on 
the occasions when peace was established between two tribes after a 
period of war. The ceremony in use at such times was peculiar. A 
wall was built, composed of roast pork and potatoes, mixed together ; 
the rival tribes established themselves at either end of the wall and 
steadily ate their way through it till they met in the middle ; and when 
this happened, the peace was considered as concluded. 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 181 

was not fed in that way he would be obliged to go without 
food when he was under taboo. 

The missioners explained to us that, in consequence of 
their recent cannibalism, the Bishop had found it expedient 
not to explain to their neophytes the doctrine of the Real 
Presence until they were completely prepared for Baptism ; 
but that in this respect they followed the discipline of 
the early Church : so that when the neophytes assisted at 
Mass they were only told that it was the highest degree of 
worship, the meaning of which they would understand later. 
And before they were baptised it was committed to them 
as a profound secret of the faith. Meanwhile, whilst assist- 
ing at Mass, one of the priests said suitable prayers with 

The next day we went up the Bay some miles, in a boat, 
to pay our respects to the Governor, Captain Hobson, R.N. 
The British settlement had only recently begun, and the 
Bay of Islands was still the head-quarters. The Governor 
talked freely about the influence of Bishop Pompallier with 
the natives. The Bishop had taught Mrs. Hobson the 
native language, and she spoke with great respect of him. 
But Bishop Folding was not a little perplexed when the 
Governor launched out with his grievance, sailor-like, 
against Bishop Pompallier, for the illegal way in which 
he sailed his missionary schooner. He described her as an 
American craft sailed by a French commander and crew 
from an English colony, without regular papers, and ex- 
hibiting a fancy flag. " If I met her at sea," concluded the 
Governor, " I should certainly seize her as a pirate and 
take her into port." To me, as an old sailor, the surprise 
of our Bishop at this language was amusing. He attempted 
a defence, but knew no more of marine law than the 
Bishop of New Zealand. At a later period the Bishop 
got his vessel registered as belonging to New Zealand, and 
hoisted the British flag. 

1 82 Autobiography of Archbisliop Ullathorne. 

The Governor's residence was near to a native pah, 
which was placed on a lofty rock, scarped and strongly 
fortified, and even the water approach defended by well- 
constructed palisades made of the trunks of trees. Within 
the pah was the armed tribe. In front of it were several 
companies of British troops under tents. It was believed 
that the natives were disposed for a conflict with them. 
The Governor mentioned this, and added that he had a 
native in prison for a murder, that he had contrived that 
the man should escape, but that the natives had brought 
him back again, wanting a reason for a conflict, and that 
he only wished he could get rid of him. The officers at 
the camp invited us to lunch with them. They were 
anxious about the state of things, and said that as they 
had no artillery they could only get at the pah with 

Next day, on the recommendation of Mr. Waterton, Dr. 
Gregory and I made an excursion to examine a remarkable 
geological formation. Accompanied by two of the mis- 
sioners and Mr. Waterton, we went up some way along the 
long winding ridges and across the valleys which charac- 
terise that part of New Zealand. At last we came to a 
broad valley, with a stream rushing through it, on the bank 
of which was a native village. Not a soul was at home, 
they had all gone to a distance to cultivate their potato 
plots. There was nothing in it alive but a dog. The pro- 
visions of corn belonging to the villagers were stored in 
huts raised on long poles to preserve them from the rats. 
To protect them from human aggressors these stores were 
tabooed, in sign of which bunches of feathers were sus- 
pended from them. To violate a taboo is death. 

On the flank of the village arose a mountain of marble, 
which extended for some half a mile along the valley. 
This mountain exhibited itself in most fantastic shapes, 
like the ruins of huge Gothic castles and abbeys, close 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 183 

upon each other. Trailing plants and mosses covered the 
whole ; whilst here and there caverns opened from the 
ground, as if they were the vaults and dungeons of this 
gigantic mass of ruins. The marble itself, when broken, 
was white, with salmon-coloured veins. One of these 
caverns was tabooed at the entrance. The Fathers ex- 
plained that this was the village cemetery, and that we 
might enter notwithstanding the taboo, as Europeans were 
excused from the law, on supposition of their ignorance of 
it. We entered, but found nothing but an old musket and 
a stench of human remains. 

Passing through a wood on our return, we met an old 
woman, who, as soon as she caught sight of the Fathers, 
began a wailing cry of joy. They had made her a Chris- 
tian, but she had not seen them for some time. After 
they had talked kindly to her, we left her still wailing and 
crying in her joy as long as we could hear her voice in the 
lonely wood. The natives invariably express any deep- 
felt joy by wailing and crying. Whilst at the mission 
house, a father and mother arrived in a boat to visit their 
son, who was studying with the Fathers ; and during the 
interview, which lasted an hour, they never ceased their 
waitings for joy. 

The Rev. Mr. Williams, the head of the Protestant 
Mission, had a good house with ornamental grounds on 
the opposite side of the Bay. He courteously crossed the 
Bay in a beautiful boat, manned by natives, to pay us a 
visit, and that visit we returned. He had been twenty 
years on the island, and had accumulated considerable 
property. The extent of land and stock which the 
Anglican missioners had acquired had been the theme 
of attack, both in the Sydney press and in the Legislative 
Council. Before there were any settlers, and twenty years 
before there was any Catholic Mission, they held possession 
and obtained a quantity of the best land for mere trifling 

184 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullatlwrne. 

considerations. It was also said that the Anglican and 
Wesleyan missioners had carried on an extensive com- 
merce with the natives in blankets, spirits, and even in 
New Zealanders' heads. These heads were the trophies 
of war. They were baked, then hardened in a current of 
cold air, and kept on shelves as proofs of bravery. They 
were sought after for museums and surgical collections. 
But the trade in them became a cause of war for their 
possession, and after a time the Australian Government 
made them contraband. In defending the missioners 
against this charge, the Protestant Bishop of Sydney once 
committed himself, in the Council, to the following state- 
ment : " That these gentlemen were bound to provide 
for their families ; and that, by the blessing of God there 
were no people who had larger families than the missioners 
of the South Sea Islands" a statement which not a little 
entertained the daily press. 

The natives soon discovered that the French missioners 
never entered into traffic, or cared for land beyond the 
small quantity required for their dwellings. Their one 
care was for the souls of the people : and about 40,000 
of them had already come under the care of the Catholic 
missions. Bishop Pompallier told me, at a later period, 
that they soon found the most horrible stories propagated 
among the people about Catholic acts and doctrines. 
For example: the priests were taken fora sort of magicians, 
who profess to conjure bread into Christ, and were a sort 
of cannibals professing to eat human flesh. On his visit 
to a distant tribe for the first time, they stared at him as 
he seated himself, with his tall and handsome figure, before 
them. Then he said to them : " I am going to eat you, 
but let me first make you a present of a blanket apiece." 
Then he explained to them that he had not come to eat 
their bodies, but to bring their spirits to the Great Spirit. 
And as he became familiar with them they told him that 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 185 

the missioners always sold their blankets very dear. My 
friend, Mr. Lett, of Sydney, in travelling about New 
Zealand, found his best introduction at the Catholic 
villages in telling the people he was a picopo and making 
the sign of the Cross. But on one occasion he committed 
the mistake of addressing a Protestant chief in this way. 
Immediately the man looked very grave, shook his head, 
and said : " God very good Maria very bad." My friend 
asked him : " What do you mean by Maria ?" He pointed 
upwards, and said : " The woman very bad." 

I was curious to see one of these wealthy missionary 
establishments, that I might speak of them from know- 
ledge. Father Bataillon, afterwards Bishop of Wallis 
Island, which he converted, undertook to accompany Dr. 
Gregory and myself. We started in a boat for a long 
pull over the length of the vast Bay, and so up the principal 
river for a distance of some six or seven miles. Our crew 
consisted of the tailor of the mission, a French youth, and 
a young native, who was to leave us at the other end of the 
Bay. We calculated on sailing back with the evening 
breeze. We pulled the whole way, and took our first rest 
on a rock, which we found covered with small oysters, and 
refreshed ourselves with what Italians call the " fruit of the 
sea," cutting our hands pretty freely in the operation of 
detaching them. We next pulled to a Catholic village 
upon the shore. The moment the three-cornered hat was 
seen the chief, with all his tribe of both sexes, came crying 
with joy to meet us. The salutes were made without inter- 
rupting the crying ; and the tall and burly chief rubbed his 
large nose against both sides of mine a nose that was blue 
and cold as that of a dog. Then we all knelt on the grass^ 
and Father Bataillon said prayers in their tongue, to which 
they answered with their usual energy ; after which 
followed a merry gossip with the good Father, that was 
Sanscrit to us. 

1 86 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

Meanwhile the wind had freshened to a gale, the water 
was getting rough, and it was judged on all hands unsafe 
to proceed further : it would be as much as we could do 
to get home, though we had a leading wind, or nearly so. 
After holding council we decided on making for an island 
which was some distance to windward, hoping to carry 
sail from there into the harbour of Korarika. We found 
the island beautiful, with a single cottage on it and a 
vegetable garden. The inhabitants were a young Scotch- 
man and his wife, who showed us every attention. After 
reaching England, I found it recorded in a newspaper that 
soon after this the young couple had been murdered and 
their place plundered. We launched again and set sail, 
the gale increased, our lee gunwale touched the water, 
and one of us had to bail the water thrown over the bows 
Feeling the position critical I got the Father to let me 
steer the boat, held the sheet of the sail in my hand ready 
to let go in case of a squall, and put her before the wind. 
We then began to sing the Litany of the Blessed Virgin, 
and never was it sung more earnestly. The vessels in the 
harbour were watching us through their glasses, anxious 
for our safety ; alert, expecting a capsise. But after dark 
we finally reached a point half a mile below the harbour, 
hauled up the boat, and got safely home. 

One excursion must be related for its amusing incident. 
Bishop Folding, Dr. Gregory, a son of Mr. Justice Therry, 
whom we were taking to college, myself, and two of the 
missionary Fathers started in the boat to visit a first class 
pah and to see the country. The pah was a formidable 
structure, square in form, as usual, enclosing a considerable 
population ; its defence consisting of upright stems of 
trees driven into the soil, bound together, and at the 
angles of the fortress grotesque figures, carved and coloured, 
surmounting still larger stumps of trees. Stockades pro- 
tected the entrance, and when these were passed the 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 187 

difficulty was far from being surmounted, for you only 
found yourself in a narrow passage which wound its way 
to the interior centre before you could obtain an entrance ; 
and this passage left you at the mercy of the rifles or 
spears that could be used by the warriors from the chinks 
and loopholes on both sides. A hostile tribe or confedera- 
tion of tribes might lie in ambush for months, watching an 
opportunity to gain entrance by scaling, breaking, slipping 
through, or undermining. 

On our return we came to the bend of a river, which we 
must cross to reach a native village. A woman brought a 
bark canoe across, too frail to take more than one 
passenger at a time, and leaky as the ferry-boat of Charon, 
for the water already covered the precarious footing that it 
offered. One of the Fathers crossed, standing upright. 
The Bishop followed the example ; but as the frail craft 
cockled from side to side, he was obliged to clap himself 
down at the bottom of the canoe amidst the water, where, 
in his purple stockings and shovel hat, he presented a 
singular spectacle. The woman who rowed him burst out 
laughing, and we could not help joining in the chorus. We 
all got over at last, and were much interested in 
watching the native women cooking a dog. Their style 
of cooking, if simple, is perfect. The following is the 
recipe : First make a hole in the ground of convenient 
size, then pave it with good round stones. On the 
stones make a wood fire until the stones are thoroughly 
heated. Prepare other heated stones at the same time. 
When all is ready, cover the heated stones with leaves. 
Lay the dog, duly prepared, upon them, cover it up with 
leaves, and then place the other hot stones upon it. Let 
experience regulate the time for the cooking, and then 
when you take up the baked animal you will not only find 
it the tenderest of food, but every drop of the gravy will 
be contained in it. 

T 88 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorue. 

We had now to make our way to our boat, and I set my 
mind on gaining it by a range of hills covered with wood. 
The natives shook their heads, and declared we could not 
go that way. The Fathers declared we could not safely 
neglect their admonition. But in a headstrong mood, I 
resolved to try, and persuaded Dr. Folding to join me, 
taking young Thierry with us. The missioners and Dr. 
Gregory took another way. From the hills we had to 
descend, and soon found ourselves up to the knees in 
black mud, treacherously concealed under long grass. 
The further we went in a worse condition we found our- 
selves. Young Thierry lost his boots, and we had to 
carry him on our backs by turns. In the midst of our 
difficulties at last their appeared a tall and half naked 
New Zealander. He had a brace of wild ducks in his 
hand, and waving them about as he stood on the verge 
of the bog, he shouted out : " One talera, two talera, three 
talera." " Yes, yes," we were ready to give him a dollar 
a head to help us out of our trouble. He then came 
near. I mounted on his shoulders, and he landed me on 
a green mound, when I could see the boat on the river 
and the Fathers in it. But when I turned again to look 
for the Bishop, I saw him mounted on the tall copper- 
coloured native, his purple-stockinged legs, covered with 
mud, sticking out before. Upon his shoulders, over the 
shovel hat, rode young Therry, and from his hands hung 
the brace of wild ducks. This human pyramid, advancing 
with solemn pace on the two long copper-coloured legs, 
caused a hearty laugh, after which we joined the boat. 

One missionary anecdote from the lips of Bishop Pom- 
pallier, and then we will leave this interesting people. A 
daughter of one of the principal chiefs had been a follower 
of certain Dissenting missioners,- and her name was Hoke. 
But, coming under the influence of the Bishop, she became 
a zealous Catholic. She was intelligent and well instructed. 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 189 

The missioners, concerned at losing such an influential 
proselyte, came and remonstrated with her. They said : 
" Well, Hoke, we are surprised at your going to those 
picopos who will not give you the Holy Book " and on 
that theme they enlarged. Meanwhile Hoke sat and lis- 
tened with her arms across : for they are very polite. 
When they had finished, Hoke arose to speak, and they 
had to sit and listen. She began : " You mickoners, you 
say you come from God ; but if you come from God you 
don't tell lies." She then said to a girl attending her, 
" Fetch my books." She took up one little book and said : 
"Look, that teaches all I have to believe. It explains the 
Apostles' Creed. Look ! " She laid it down and took up 
another. " Look, that explains all I have to do. It ex- 
plains the Ten Commandments. Look ! " She then took 
up a third, and said : " Look, that explains all I have to 
ask of God. It explains the Lord's Prayer. Look ! If I 
was blind, of what use would be the Holy Book ? But 
the picopo came, and he spoke to my ear living words, and 
the words went to my heart, and the light of God came 
with them, and I saw and believed. And now you have 
told lies go, go, go ! " 



AFTER a very interesting fortnight at Korarika we set sail 
for Chili. Our captain had failed in disposing of much of 
his remaining cargo of jarke (chaire ante}, or sun-dried 
Chilian beef. For the pork of New Zealand, fed in the 
woods, was so abundant and so much superior to anything 
of the kind fed in England, combining the qualities of veal 
and wild boar with that of pork, that the settlers never 
grew tired of it. This great supply of hogs had sprung 
from three left by Captain Cook. Before his arrival they 
had no quadrupeds, besides rats, except the dogs left by 
the Spaniards, which still retain the Spanish name of perro. 
The cannibalism formerly in practice was associated with 
the notion that in eating a warrior they partook of his 
warlike qualities. 

On leaving New Zealand we found ourselves on the 
broad Pacific, where a strong wind is almost always 
blowing in the direction of Cape Horn. In the Bay of 
Aranca I read over again the celebrated epic of Ercillas, 
and dwelt on his fine vision in those waters. Passing Juan 
Fernandez on a bright day, with a fine breeze, it was im- 
possible not to recall Selkirk and Robinson Crusoe. The 
lofty island still abounded with goats ; but Chili had made 
it a penal settlement, a sort of second Norfolk Island, which 
destroyed its poetry. The Andes towered up at a great 
distance on our right, and volcanic ashes fell in fine dust 
upon our deck, though we saw nothing of volcanoes. At 

Autobiography of Arclibisliop Ullathorne. 191 

last we turned into the Bay of Talcuhana, where the friends 
of our captain, whose brother-in-law was Governor of the 
town, came crowding on our deck. 

We soon learnt that there was a furious civil war raging 
in Columbia, and that it would not be safe to take our pro- 
posed route across the Pampas, owing to the confusion on 
the other side of the continent. The city of Conception 
was seven miles inland from the port ; a new bishop had 
just been appointed, and he was on his way to receive con- 
secration at St. Jago, the capital, attended by fifty horse- 
men, on a ride of some six hundred miles. As there was 
no suitable inn at Talcuhana, we remained on board, going 
ashore to say Mass and to look about the country ; for 
both the city of Conception and the town of Talcuhana 
had been utterly destroyed by an earthquake seven years 
previously to our arrival, and this was the third destruction 
by similar causes. On the last occasion a great wave came 
upon Talcuhana and washed it into the sea : and the first 
town of that name lay at the bottom of the Bay. 

Being English, the people could not get rid of the notion 
that we must be Protestants, and that young Therry was 
the Bishop's son. Even though they saw us say Mass in 
their churches, they only concluded that the Protestant 
service was very like their own. We had also to encounter 
a prejudice on the part of the Governor of the Province, 
which came of a very innocent cause. Colonel Frere, a 
member of a wealthy family near Talcuhana, had been 
exiled, with some of his companions, for their share in 
one of the numerous insurrections which from time to time 
agitated the country. They were sent off to one of the 
South Sea Islands in a gun brig. Calling at Sydney on 
their way, our Bishop heard of them, with his usual kind- 
ness called upon them, offered them hospitality, and sent 
them presents of provisions which might conduce to their 
comfort. The governing authorities of Chili heard of this, 

1 92 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorue. 

mistook the courtesy of a Catholic bishop to Catholic gentle- 
men under a cloud for sympathy with their cause. The 
Bishop, therefore, on arriving received no attention, except 
from the family of Freres, who did all they could to show 
their gratitude, and put their finest houses at our disposal. 
But Captain Saunders and his friends bustled about, ex- 
plained the spirit and intent of the Bishop, and went to 
the Governor at Conception to lodge an explanation with 
him, and told him what a disgrace it would be if the Bishop 
were neglected because of a pure act of humanity. We 
were consequently invited by General Bulnoz to his 
mansion in the city of Conception. Bulnoz was the brother 
of the hero who had conquered the Peruvians on their own 
soil, and who was at that time President of the Republic. 

We started on the beautiful horses lent by the Freres, 
accompanied by our captain and the British Consul, and 
after a ride of seven miles reached the splendid mansion of 
the Governor, which had been rebuilt since the earthquake, 
and covered a large space of ground, as the whole was on 
the ground storey, a precaution against new earthquakes. 
On surveying the city we found that it had been utterly 
destroyed : all that remained of the once most magnificent 
cathedral in South America were the broken steps of the 
high altar. All the churches as well as the convents had 
been completely destroyed. The population for several 
years had lived in tents. The town was being gradually 
reconstructed, but all on ground floors. The bells of the 
provisional church were suspended in low wooden cages. 
It was curious to notice the sparkles of gold in the broken 
bricks of the ruins, but they were not worth extracting. 

The heads of the clergy, of the Religious Orders of men, 
and the chief notables were invited to meet us ; and such a 
dinner was laid on the table as only Chilians or Peruvians 
could understand. The courses were endless, and eating 
went on for seven hours and a-half, from four o'clock to 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathornc. 193 

half-past eleven. None of the party spoke any language 
but their native Spanish, except the clergy, who spoke to 
us and interpreted for us in Latin : for though we under- 
stood their speech pretty well we did not venture to smatter 
in it. So Don Jose, one of the canons, was our chief 
interpreter. Towards the end of the dinner, at which the 
sweets were introduced in the middle and the meats followed 
anew, a negro servant undertook to produce an English 
dish in our honour. The dish was produced amidst general 
expectation, and consisted of five boiled ducks floating in 
hot water, with skins as tight as the skins of ripe goose- 
berries. Altough it was the etiquette to taste of each dish, 
everybody rebelled against the English dish, and it was 
taken away. After the prodigious labour of this dinner, we 
rose from table at near midnight. We left the Bishop in a 
suite of handsome rooms, and Dr. Gregory and I took our 
way to the British Resident, where we found accommodation 
On our way thither we met first one then another of the 
city police, mountedon horseback, trotting along and 
blowing a whistle all the way, except when it was interrupted 
by chanting Ave Maria purissima or calling the hour, 
with the cry Viva CJiili. It struck us as an effective way 
of warning the thieves and evil doers to get away. 

The next morning the Bishop said Mass in the principal 
provisional church ; but the people still believed that he was 
a Protestant, and that they were assisting at a Protestant 
service. We then, under clerical guidance, made a round 
of visits to all the Religious houses, both of men and women, 
accompanied by a curious crowd, the bells all ringing in 
honour of the Bishop throughout the city. The decora- 
tion of the churches was unpleasantly tawdry. Religion 
was confessedly at a low ebb in the country, and the 
Sacraments but little frequented. We did not visit the 
convents without getting a penance, though most kindly 
intended. At every house of nuns or friars we were pre- 

194 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

sented with a cup of thick chocolate and a sugar biscuit, 
from which we could not escape by any apology, so that 
we were nearly choked. The Trinitarian Nuns, a large and 
flourishing Community with a respectable boarding school, 
threw open the folding doors of their enclosure and received 
us in a body, standing on one side of the enclosure whilst 
we stood on the other. Benedictines though we were, they 
insisted on our receiving the Trinitarian scapular, and sent 
for their chaplain to confer it in their presence. As the 
Bishop tamely submitted to the function, we, of course, 
followed, however uncanonical the proceeding. 

After luncheon with the Governor, his Excellency pro- 
posed to drive the Bishop back to Talcuhana. A great 
company, consisting of the chief clergy, Superiors of Reli- 
gious houses, military officers, and gentlemen assembled 
on horseback with a guard of honour. A singular vehicle, 
consisting of a sort of tub with the sides and seat mounted 
on four wheels, was produced ; and the Governor, an 
enormously stout man, mounted together with the Bishop, 
and we were ranged in order and proceeded. It was a 
strange and variegated scene, and the English Consul and 
I soon dropped behind that we might talk freely and enjoy 
the spectacle. It reminded us of Flaxman's procession of 
the Canterbury pilgrims. Military men were mixed with 
civilians in their broad sombreros, and the cloaks and 
scapulars of the Religious men flew out in the wind, whilst 
their heads were covered with large-brimmed straw hats. 
After going about a mile the seat of the carriage broke 
down between the big wheels, evidently owing to the im- 
mense weight of the Governor. The two riders disentangled 
themselves. After examination the vehicle was pronounced 
incurable, and to the great relief of the Bishop, who was a 
famous horseman, led horses were brought forward for 
them to mount. On approaching Talcuhana we were met 
by another escort, headed by the chief men of the town 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 195 

when bidding farewell to our entertainers we returned to 
our ship. 

In the harbour was a French whaler which, after two 
years in the Pacific, was returning to Havre de Grace. We 
arranged for a passage in her, the mates and harpooners 
giving up their cabins for a small share of the fare, and 
we were soon once more at sea. They kept the crow's 
nest at the masthead, as they were not full, and still hoped 
to fall in with a whale or two, but were disappointed. The 
captain was an able man, well-mannered and agreeable. 
The numerous crew were light-hearted, easily amused, and 
always gay. They had no allowance of rum, as on board 
an English ship, but drank spruce beer, made on board 
from twigs of the spruce tree. They had neither the 
economy nor the industry of English sailors, with whom 
not an inch of rope is wasted. As we neared France coil 
after coil of rope was thrown overboard, which English 
sailors would have been employed in turning into spinyard, 
knittles, etc. The reason alleged was that they would have 
everything new for the next voyage. Yet with all their 
leisure they never quarrelled. 

One night we were awakened in our cabins by an awful 
scream from aloft. It had begun to blow, and a light youth 
was furling a maintop-gallant sail when he slipped from 
the yards and hung suspended by his hands to the foot 
rope. The captain, a little wiry man, was on deck, and 
shouted out : " Hold on a minute." He then threw off his 
pea-jacket, ran up aloft like a cat, got astride the yard like 
lightning, seized the man by the collar, flung him over his 
shoulder like a child, and brought him down on deck. This 
was the third life he had saved in the course of his 
maritime career. 

During the early part of the voyage I thought much 
on the religious requirements of Australia. There were 
then five colonies, at great distances from each other, as 

196 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 

well as the distant penal settlements of Port Macquarrie 
and Norfolk Island. And yet the one bishop was entirely 
occupied with New South Wales, and could know little of 
what passed in the other colonies. Until they had each a 
bishop they were not likely to have a due provision of 
priests. It appeared to me that what was wanted was an 
Australian Hierarchy with an Archbishop at its head. I 
thought, also, that the Bishop would enter into the scheme 
of multiplying bishops more readily if a Hierarchy could 
be gained instead of Vicars-Apostolic. I therefore drew 
up a scheme for a Hierarchy, alleging the reasons for it 
that I thought expedient, specifying the sees to be gradu- 
ally filled up. I 'presented my scheme to the Bishop, 
and urged the subject on his attention until he became 
disposed to see its importance and to enter into it. This 
document Bishop Folding afterwards took to Rome, and 
he informed me that it was made the basis of the plan 
afterwards approved by the Holy See. Archbishop Ni- 
cholson, then a Carmelite Father, also told me that it was 
through his influence, knowing the ways of Rome, that the 
plan became successful at Propaganda. But of this later 
on. Let us proceed on our voyage. 

The Bishop never lost an opportunity of drawing souls 
to God. I remember his telling me that he thought the 
sublimest act of his ministry was on a dark night travelling 
through Illawarra. He was being guided through the bush 
by the son of an Irish settler, and conversing with him as 
he rode along beside the horse, the Bishop found that for 
a long time he had not been to his religious duties. It was 
very dark and pouring with rain, but the Bishop got off his 
horse, tied him to a tree, sat on the fallen trunk of another 
tree, got the boy to kneel on the wet ground, and heard his 
confession. The next time he went that way he inquired 
for the boy, and found that he had been killed whilst felling 
a tree. 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 197 

On board the French whaler the Bishop got a word first 
with one man, then with another, and gradually formed a 
little class that came down into the cabin for instruction. 
The class grew until it embraced the whole crew, officers 
included, who came down in their watches below. To one 
or other of us, as their choice suggested, they came to con- 
fession. At twelve o'clock on Easter Eve, lying in my 
cabin, I heard the men creeping into the cabin in their 
stockings, and when assembled those simple-hearted men 
went on their knees and sang the cantique, RSjouissas-vous t 
O Chretiens ', as a greeting to the Bishop at the dawn of 
Easter Day. Next morning, the weather being fine and 
the sea smooth, an awning was stretched over the main 
deck, an altar erected, and the Bishop, with Dr. Gregory 
and myself as assistants, sang High Mass for the crew, 
all of whom went to Holy Communion. Having most of 
them been choir boys, when young, in their village churches, 
they sang the Mass in plain chant, and acquitted them- 
selves well. At the offertory the cook unexpectedly pre- 
sented himself on his knees with a loaf on a cloth, especially 
prepared for the pain bcnit,\.o> be eaten after Communion 
according to French custom. Often after that day did we 
hear the men singing pious cantiques, especially during 
the night watches. 

On crossing the line we gave a festival to the crew, handing 
them some of our Chilian sheep and sundry dozens of light 
wine. But the sheep of Chili have not too much meat on 
their frames ; when dressed and hung up, if you put a 
light inside them they make excellent red lanthorns, and 
reveal their whole anatomy. Still the men enjoyed their 
dinner of fresh provisions, were exceedingly gay, and danced 
and sang without cessation the whole day. Their instru- 
mental music consisted of an old speaking trumpet and 
some bars of metal, on which, with the help of their 
mouths, they contrived to accentuate their favourite tunes. 

198 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

These rough men were so simple and childlike ! How they 
enjoyed our entering into their amusements, and talked to 
us of the pleasure it would be to their mothers, wives, and 
sisters, to hear from them that the Bishop had promoted 
and witnessed their fete, I could not resist inserting this 
little event, it struck us as showing what Christianity could 
do to make the hearts of men of a rude occupation, simple. 
It was such a contrast to what English rustics would have 
been under like circumstances. But sailors, even English 
sailors, are incomparably more simple and genuine, as a 
class, than their brethren ashore ; if only religion could be 
brought to them when afloat, they could be guided as 
children are guided when off their element. 

The captain was a steady. and religious man, who always 
made his Easter duties. The only one who hung back was 
the young surgeon. One saw that it was nothing but a 
little of the pride of the esprit fort ', and that more in show 
than in reality ; for he was really a good-hearted young 
man. One smooth day, Dr. Gregory asked him to go up 
with him into the maintop, there to lie down and have a 
talk in the cool air. After a time Dr. Gregory, who was a 
strong, muscular man, seized him by the collar, as if going 
to pitch him into the sea. The little doctor, startled, called 
out, " Ah, Monsieur Gregory ! Tenez, tenez" " What is the 
matter," said Dr. Gregory. " There must be something not 
right in your conscience that makes you afraid. The fact 
is, the Bishop has sent me for you, he wants to speak to you 
in his cabin. " Oh, Monsieur Gregory, will you make my 
apology ? " " Certainly not. Is that your French polite- 
ness ? Go and make it yourself." They came down ; the 
little doctor reluctantly descended to the Bishop's cabin. 
Dr. Gregory pushed him in and closed the door. After an 
interval he came out with a happy face and went to Com- 
munion soon after, to the delight of the crew. He then told 
Dr. Gregory that he had been piously brought up, and that 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 199 

his first Communion day had been the happiest of his life ; 
but that he had been diverted from the exercise of his 
religion through the influence of certain college companions, 
though never in his heart had he abandoned the faith. On 
our reaching Havre de Grace the ship's company presented 
the Bishop and his companions with a grateful and touching 
address drawn up, and read by the doctor, which appeared 
in the Havre newspapers. 

About three hundred miles off the river La Plata we 
encountered a gale such as I never elsewhere experienced. 
It had been blowing already and the sea was rough, when 
there came a tremendous gale that laid the sea flat, the 
foam running over the surface like cream. We put before 
the wind under bare poles, and as it became more moderate 
the sea rose furiously. On sounding the pumps there were 
twelve feet of water. We took our spell with the men at 
the pump handles, but after twelve hours' pumping it was 
found that there was no leak : it was the result of the 
strain upon the hull for the time. 

As our vessel entered the Channel we got an English 
newspaper from a pilot-boat, and the first thing on which 
my eyes fell was the failure of the Wrights' Bank. This 
was sad news for the Catholics of England and for Catholic 
institutions, and we were apprehensive for our own small 
resources. But our agent, Dr. Heptonstall, had divined 
the state of things, and had drawn everything out just in 



TOWARD the close of May, 1841, we reached Havre, and 
got to London in time for the aggregate meeting of the 
Catholic Association, at which O'Connell made one of his 
great speeches. The Bishop was particularly solicitous 
to appear at that great assembly, as an opportunity for 
bringing the Catholic affairs of Australia before the 
Catholics of England. He said to me : " I will skirmish, 
if you will explain our great wants systematically." The 
Bishop spoke, but Lord Camoys, who was in the chair, 
overruled my speaking in the committee room, on the 
plea of want of time ; and though repeatedly called upon 
I thought it prudent to sit still. However, the meeting 
brought us into contact with the leaders of the English 

At the request of the Bishop I then proceeded to 
Maynooth without delay, to endeavour to obtain more 
ecclesiastics ; or, rather, to prepare the way for the Bishop's 
obtaining them, whilst the Bishop himself went to assist 
at the opening of St. Chad's Cathedral in Birmingham. 
Very kindly received by my old friends, the President and 
professors of Maynooth, I was asked by Dean Gaffiney to 
give the annual retreat to the students, prior to ordination 
and the break-up of the College. This, with the help of the 
works of St. Alphonsus, I did ; and took an opportunity, 
with the President's approval, of giving a lecture on the 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 201 

Australian Mission. This led sundry of the students to 
offer themselves to the work of the Australian Church. I 
wrote to Bishop Folding, telling him how important it was 
that he should be on the spot without delay, as the vacation 
was so near ; that otherwise my work would be frustrated. 
He replied that he would leave Birmingham immediately 
after the opening, and that, as I suggested, he would not 
even wait for the assemblage of the leading Catholics from 
every part of England in the Town Hall afterwards. Yet 
though his Lordship faithfully complied with my request 
thus far, from being inexperienced in railway travelling he 
reached Liverpool too late for the boat. He was advised 
to go to Holyhead, reached there too late again for the 
boat, returned to Liverpool, and at last reached Dublin after 
the vacation had commenced. This misfortune was serious, 
as the freshness of the call to Australia wore off before 
another opportunity came round. 

We made a journey together to the South of Ireland, 
where the Bishop had many friends and I not a few. 
We received a genuine welcome at Carlow, where the 
College was having its exhibition, and there met the cele- 
brated Bishop England, of South Carolina, as also Bishop 
Clancey, of Demerara. Thence we paid a visit to the 
Cistercian Monastery of Mount Mellerai, where for the first 
time I found myself in a centre of that ascetic life to 
which I had once aspired. The monastery was large, the 
Community numerous, the church capacious ; but everything 
bore the signs of Cistercian simplicity and poverty. A large 
school was under the care of the Fathers, who taught agri- 
culture as well as literature. We resolved to assist at the 
midnight office, and nothing to my heart was more im- 
pressive. The office was long, for everything was solemnly 
chanted. The two long choirs of the white-robed monks 
alternately sang the psalmody in three simple, but sweet, 
notes that never varied, with long pauses for reflection in 

2O2 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

the middle of each verse. The lessons and even the Gospel 
were sung in the same tones, and the Abbot gave the 
Benediction, still in the same notes, from the rood-loft- 
The sweet accents, with solemn pauses of silence, of that 
never tiring monotony of rise and fall, under which the 
ever-varying sense of the psalmody advanced, seemed to 
express the acquirements of an unchangeable peace and 
patience of soul ; whilst the whole of the changeable move- 
ment was interior and contemplative. It seemed to realise 
that sentence of St. Augustine : " Join thyself to eternity 
and thou shalt find rest." 

Next day we parted with the courteous and hospitable 
Abbot, and proceeded through the beautiful scenery by the 
Blackwater until we reached the hospitable roof of Father 
Fogarty, the parish priest of Lismore, and a friend 
of the Bishop and of the Australian Mission. But, habi- 
tuated as we were to tropical climates, the chill of the 
night watch in the monastic choir had struck into our very 
bones, and although we were near the end of a bright July, 
we begged of Father Fogarty, as the greatest charity he 
could do us, to make a good roaring fire. And highly 
amused was he as he piled wood upon burning wood, and 
watched our pale faces and shivering frames, until a good 
dinner combined with the glowing flames to put us to 
rights. And yet that Cistercian choir clings to memory, 
recalling men dead to the world, but alive to God. 

At Clonmel we met the excellent Dean Burke, and had 
an opportunity of thanking him for the good care he had 
taken of the convicts sent from the prison of that town to 
New South Wales. Making our way across the bogs in an 
open car, we met groups of men, every now and then, all 
alive with excitement at the General Election for Parliament 
then going on. The country was enjoying the first-fruits 
of Catholic Emancipation and the Reform Act. We 
stopped and talked with those we met, and the Bishop 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 203 

impressed on them the advantages for steady men of 
emigration to the Australian Colonies. At Kilkenny, 
walking from the Black Monastery, as the old Dominican 
Monastery still in the hands of the Dominican Fathers 
is called, we met John O'Connell in company with the 
Mayor ; and they gave us a beautiful specimen of the 
freedom of election. They told us they had just come 
from the bulk of their voters securely locked up in a large 
barn, to keep them safe from the rival candidate, and with 
plenty of whisky to amuse them until safely conducted 
by sure friends to the poll. They invited us to go and 
address them and cheer them up, which, of course, we 
declined as politely as we could. 

At Cork, Father Mathew received us with the heartiest 
welcome, and became our guide through the city, which 
gave us an opportunity of witnessing his wonderful influ- 
ence and popularity as the Apostle of Temperance. On 
first meeting he started back and said : " I expected to 
meet a venerable man with a white head, and not a man of 
your age. I have printed 20,000 copies of your sermon on 
drunkenness. You are entitled to the silver medal." And 
he gave me one. The Temperance Movement was at its 
height. The house of Father Mathew was turned into an 
office for temperance purposes. He had three secretaries 
constantly engaged. He told us that he had spent 1,600 
in aiding temperance bands alone ; and that the medals he 
had given away and his extensive correspondence were 
sources of great expense to him. His work involved a 
complete system of administration. He conducted us to 
the celebrated Convent of Blackrock, of which he was the 
temporal Father, and we spent a pleasant day there. We 
also met him at the Bishop's, Dr. Murphy, whose large 
collection of books covered every wall of his house, from 
the entrance to the attics. Our chief object in visiting 
Cork was to see the Rev. Father England, brother of the 

2O4 Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 

Bishop of South Carolina, the man who had done more 
than any other on this side of the world for the convicts 
embarked for Australia. He was chaplain to 'the convict 
establishment at the Cove of Cork, and a man of more 
indefatigable zeal and untiring charity there could not be. 
We knew when a convict ship arrived from Cork that half 
our work was done. He heard every man's confession, 
gave books to all who could read, and letters to all who 
deserved particular attention. We were disappointed in not 
finding him he had recently died. We saw his sister, the 
Superioress of the first Convent of the Presentation, 
founded by Miss Nagle. We went to visit an emigrant 
ship preparing to start for Sydney, and the emigrants were 
delighted to have a few words and a blessing from their 
future Bishop. 

We went by coach from Cork to Killarney, and stopping 
to change horses at an intermediate town a large group of 
electioneering men, armed with shillalahs, came up to the 
coach and asked if there were any Tories there. A foolish 
young Englishman answered from the top of the coach : 
" I'm a Tory." In an instant two men climbed to the top 
of the coach and pulled him down into the middle of the 
group, and every stick was quivering over him for a blow. 
I quickly cried out to the Bishop, who was at the other 
side from what was going on : " Get out your cross, jump 
down, or they will kill the man." I pushed the coach door 
open and shouted to the men: " Stop ! Here is the Catholic 
Archbishop of Sydney, a great friend of Irishmen, who 
wants to speak to you." They stopped, listened to the 
Bishop, gave three cheers for him, and let the man go. 
Pale and trembling he came up to the Bishop, and asked if 
he might know to whom he was indebted for his life. The 
Bishop gave him a stern rebuke for his folly, and said to 
him : " You little know the meaning which those words 
convey to the minds of those poor people." At last a man 

Autobiography of Arc/ibis /top U Hat home. 205 

of more respectable appearance came up, who was evidently 
the leader : he gave his pledge that the young man should 
not be disturbed. We sailed over the Lakes of Killarney 
with the usual enthusiasm, and witnessed some exciting 
election scenes, which the temperance movement saved from 
degradation. All was good natured and good humoured. 

On our return to England we separated, each on our 
own way. Some letters passed between us on my proposed 
appointment to the Bishopric of Hobart Town, against 
which I was as averse as ever; and even more so, because I 
felt that, good priest as he was, as Father Therry had been 
placed as Vicar-General in Van Dieman's Land, I should 
have the same difficulties to meet there as I had on my 
first arrival in Sydney, owing to his want of management 
in temporal affairs. The result was that I received a letter 
informing me that our relations were at an end. This was 
partly a surprise, but still more a relief. I wrote to the 
Secretary for the Colonies, announcing my retirement from 
office, settled with the Colonial Agent, and immediately 
returned to my Monastery at Downside. I then wrote to 
the President-General, the truly venerable Dr. Marsh, 
informed him of what I had done, and awaited his 
directions. The President wrote me a very kind letter in 
reply, saying I should be glad of a rest after my labours. 

Father Wilson was then Prior. He gave me some 
teaching to do; and among other things 1 had the spiritual 
instruction of a young class. I found this class inclined to 
be restless and troublesome over their spiritual reading. 
I asked them to tell me plainly the reason of it. They 
told me that for some time they had been set to read the 
first book of St. Francis of Sales on the " Love of God," 
and that they could not understand it. It was evident that 
to lads of twelve and fourteen years those disquisitions on 
the mental and moral faculties were pure metaphysics, so 
I got the book changed to their great relief. But I had 

206 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

myself a lesson to learn. Accustomed almost since my 
ordination to exercise my free judgment on matters of 
importance, and to direct and lead the way in new under- 
takings, when ordered to do little things by my Superior 
I felt a jump in my lower nature, which led me to look 
down and say to myself: " Hallo ! what is the meaning of 
that?" No doubt others, under similar circumstances, have 
experienced the same. I then learnt the difficulty there 
is at first in passing from an active life of authority to 
the observance in subjection of regular discipline. But in 
a short time that passed away. Soon after, the President- 
General directed me to place myself under the authority 
of the Provincial of the South. Father Bernard Paillet, a 
devout religious man, had been appointed to the mission 
of Coventry, but was seized with an attack of the nerves 
on his way, which deprived him of sight, and I was in- 
structed by the Provincial to take his place. 


1 FOUND the mission of Coventry in a desolate condition, 
and the small mission house under the care of a young 
girl. The chapel, of no great age, was small and plain, 
with large cracks in the walls, which were afterwards ex- 
plained when it was taken down ; for it had been built on 
deal planks laid almost on the surface of abed of sand.* 
The house was so small that there was barely space enough 
in the rooms for a little table and half a dozen chairs. But 
there was a good school which had been built by Father 
Cockshoot during his administration. And though an old 
man had the sole charge of the school, he was a good 
schoolmaster of that time. Father Pope, a celebrated 
musician, had served the mission in his last and irtfirmer 
years, had exerted himself much, and had infused a spirit 
of piety into his little congregation ; but he was succeeded 
by one, a good man, but of infirm mind, who had been 
twice in an asylum, and who, though devout, was utterly 
incapable of taking care of a congregation. Hence there 
had been a considerable falling away. But I found them 

* " The chapel of Coventry," he writes in the preface to a volume 
of sermons published in 1842, "is raised on a sloping bed of sand. 
The walls are broken and giving way, the ceiling in a very bad con- 
dition. The foundations on one side were recently taken out to be 
repaired, and were found to rest on rotten piles. The interior walls, 
specially of the sanctuary, are covered with wet, and the whole 
interior is a scene of cold and naked desolation, contrasting strangely 
enough with the fervour of its poor, but zealous, congregation, whose 
rapidly increasing numbers it will scarce contain." 

208 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

to be a good, simple people, only anxious to have the 
mission restored ; and I did my best to put them right 
with my Superior. Four sergeants on the recruiting staff 
were particularly complained of; but I found them to be 
excellent men, truly religious, and regular at their religious 
duties; two of them were afterwards raised to lieutenancies. 
Excepting one very respectable farmer, and the Town 
Surveyor, they were almost all of the decent class of 
weavers or watchmakers, and were truly devoted to the 
Church. The furnishing of the chapel was very poor, nor 
had I ever saved money that I might put it right ; but 
Mrs. Amherst, of Kenilworth, aided me to set things in 
order. I soon obtained an assistant in Father Clarkson, 
and the work went on.* 

Meanwhile I received a letter from Bishop Folding at 
Rome, informing me that the plan I had drawn up for an 
Australian Hierarchy had been accepted ; that as I had 
raised so much objection to the See of Hobart Town, Prior 
Wilson, of Downside, had been appointed to that see, and 
that I had been appointed to the See of Adelaide in South 
Australia. Prior Wilson declined the appointment. I 
kept mine to myself for some time, meditating upon it, 
until I received another letter from Bishop Folding now 
Archbishop of Sydney requesting a reply, by signifying 
my acceptance. Resolved, as I was, to decline the episco- 
pate in any shape, I wrote in reply that, with leave of my 
Superior, I would come to Rome and plead my own cause, 
as I was still in the mind not to accept any such appoint- 

* Writing to Bishop Brown, of Wales, shortly after his arrival at 
Coventry, he says : " I am now in full occupation and very happy in 
the midst of it. I am surprised to find with what facility I have 
begun to plod. I trust I shall never have any other than my present 
duties, or those of a similar character." And again, after referring to 
some vexatious public affairs : "When will all this weary work cease? 
Who would exchange the quiet I experience, plodding among my 
poor Coventry people, for all these cares and heart-burnings ?" 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 209 

ment I went to Rome, and after an interview with Car- 
dinal Franzoni, the Prefect of Propaganda, I was freed from 
the appointment to Adelaide, and the Rev. Francis Murphy 
was appointed. At Rome I made the acquaintance of 
Father Nicholson, an Irish Carmelite, afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Corfu. Having a considerable knowledge of the 
business ways of Propaganda, and influence as well, he had 
been of great use to Archbishop Folding in obtaining the 
establishment of the Hierarchy. It had raised the repu- 
tation of the Archbishop, and Pope Gregory XVI. showed 
him a mark of confidence by sending him on a special 
commission to Malta. The Archbishop had asked Father 
Nicholson to go with him to Sydney as his Vicar-General. 
He consulted me on the subject, and put the question : 
" Suppose Dr. Gregory were to take different views from 
mine, what would be the consequence?" I replied that 
though Dr. Gregory was a most attached friend and fol- 
lower of the Archbishop he would never interfere in matters 
of that kind. But the Father declined the invitation, and 
on later reflection I did not think it would have answered. 
The Archbishop and he were both sensitive men by nature, 
and would have come together in matured life with different 
habits of viewing things. 

At my farewell audience with Gregory XVI. His 
Holiness told me how much the Archbishop of Sydney 
regretted that I could not be one of his suffragans, and 
gave a special blessing to my mission in England. At a 
later date I learnt that Father Nicholson had advised 
Cardinal Franzoni to keep me in view for any vacancy in 
England ; and this explains a letter that I received from 
His Eminence in the following year, in which he announced 
that a see had been constituted at Perth, in Western 
Australia, and offering me the appointment, adding, how- 
ever, that if I was not inclined to accept it, he wished me 
to recommend some suitable person for that appointment. 


21 o Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

As that diocese was the most suitable for a mission to the 
blacks, I recommended Father Brady, who had had a long 
experience in the Island of Bourbon among the negroes, was 
an excellent missionary, and had a great attraction for the 
aboriginal population. He was appointed. But later on 
the Archbishop called on the Spanish Benedictines to 
establish a mission to the blacks in that quarter. The 
Queen of Spain took an interest in the work, and sent them 
out in a frigate. One of them was appointed Bishop. The 
two Bishops did not pull well together, probably from want 
of sufficient defining of their respective jurisdictions, and 
Dr. Brady retired. But the mission to the blacks has been 
a great success. 

On my departure from Rome I was asked by Dr. Grant, 
of the Scotch College, if I would travel home with an elderly 
lady, Mrs. Hutchinson, of Edinburgh, for her protection. 
Mrs. Hutchinson, the widow of Colonel Hutchinson, had 
been, before her conversion, a leader and sort of centre of 
the Irvingites of Edinburgh; but, after her conversion to the 
Church, had become the chief founder of St. Margaret's 
Convent, in whose interest she was now in Rome. I con- 
sented to travel with her, and the more readily as she 
wished to go by the Tyrol, and to visit the Adolorata and 
the Ecstatica, then exciting a great deal of attention. At 
Assisi we stayed two days, deeply interested in all that 
was associated with St. Francis and St. Clare. The moun- 
tains and plains of that austere region breathed of the 
heroic poverty and ecstatic detachment of these wonderful 
Saints. After visiting the proto-convents of the two Saints, 
we stayed at the Hospicium of the Portiuncula. The old 
King of Bavaria was there at the same time. 

At Perugia I had a letter to the Abbot of the celebrated 
Benedictine Monastery, and as I could not remain there a 
guest, having a lady under charge, the Abbot kindly put 
his carriage at our disposal, and sent a Father to be our 

A utobiography of A rchbishop Ullathorne. 2 1 1 

guide. At the hotel we met the celebrated Mrs. Gray, 
who opened the English mind to the ancient Etruscan 
remains, and found her full of enthusiasm with her dis- 
coveries. In the still loftier placed city of Cortona, after 
visiting the shrine of St. Margaret, I made special inquiries 
respecting the Ecstatica of Sansovina, of whom the Earl of 
Shrewsbury had written in the second edition of his book. 
The Bishop was absent, but I was given to understand that 
he had given it no especial countenance, except to allow 
her daily Mass and Communion in the house. A grave 
Canon with whom I conversed was inclined to use dis- 
couraging language : he thought it a case of catalepsy. But 
the Franciscan Fathers at St. Margaret's assured me that 
it was a remarkable case, and well worth a visit. We 
resolved to go to Sansovina, and one of the canons kindly 
gave me an introduction to the Archpriest who was the 
director of the person in question. Like Cortona, Sansovina 
was situated on very high ground, and we had to get oxen 
to help our horses up the steep ascent At the rude inn I 
asked a servant girl if many strangers visited the place. 
She said : " Until lately, very few ; but now a great many." 
I asked why they came. She answered : " A cosa diquesla 
ragazza" (Because of this lass.) And she added : " Vn 
gran Principe di Londra e venuto" This was Lord 
Shrewsbury. The peasantry of Italy generally imagined 
in those days that England was somewhere in London. 
After I was Bishop of Birmingham, a bishop asked me in 
the Papal sacristy of the Vatican : " Monsignor, sta questo 
Birmingham in Londra o in Scozzia ?" And when I assured 
him that it was in the very centre of England, he still 
wished to know whether this Birmingham was in England 
or in America. Geography in those days was not a strong 
point, even with learned Italians. 

In the evening we called on the Archpriest, who struck 
me as having a great resemblance to the famous O'Connell, 

212 Autobiography of Archbishop Vllathotnc 

both in size and figure, as it had also struck Bishop after- 
wards Cardinal Wiseman as he told me at a later time. 
He received us very kindly, and said he would gladly give 
us an opportunity of observing what was most remarkable 
in the young person under his care, if we attended the Mass 
next morning, which he should say in her room. - I then 
asked for a private interview with him, and asked him to 
tell me candidly what were his own observations of the case, 
as far as he could properly communicate them. He told 
me that he had made it a rule never to volunteer any 
remark, but that he would frankly answer any questions. 
In reply to mine, the Archpriest sketched her history and 
that of her poor parents, and how her infirmities had come 
upon her after great solicitude in attending her mother in 
an illness. Did she take much food ? She lived on the air, 
water, and a little lettuce. Was she supposed to have the 
stigmata ? She had the sense, but not the manifestation of 
them. She had prayed much that they might not appear. 
She also had peculiar relations with the Ecstatica of the 
Tyrol, Maria Moerl, knowing much of what passed with 
her. What were the chief singularities that distinguished 
her ? These I might observe for myself at the Mass next 
morning. I wished him good evening, thanking him for 
his kind attentions, and one of his curates showed us through 
the town. He was not very communicative on the subject 
which chiefly interested us, but prudently referred me to 
the Archpriest. Yet he warmly defended the innocence 
and purity of her character, despite the stories about her 
being deluded or a deceiver. 

Next morning we went early to the house, and were 
shown into her small bedroom. Besides ourselves, there 
were two female pilgrims from Loretto, in their pilgrim's 
costume. The Archpriest was preparing to say Mass, with 
a curate to assist him, at an altar placed against the wall 
opposite the end of the bed. On the bed lay the poor girl, 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 213 

robed in a long, white, cotton dress covered with a sheet 
On one side sat her mother, on the other a female relative. 
I at once observed that her head and brow were large and 
well proportioned, and that her nervous predominated over 
her muscular system. I had no particular recollection of 
Lord Shrewsbury's statement, but in a critical spirit I 
knelt in the position most favourable for observations. She 
was very pale, and with closed eyes recollected. At the 
offertory she suddenly sprang up erect, without any aid 
from her arms, and expanded her arms in prayer for the 
length of a minute, and then slowly descended backwards, 
until again reclined on her bed, when the sheet was drawn 
over again by her attendants. At the consecration she 
did the same, praying longer than before. I then observed 
that she rested on her toes. The curate, who was by me, 
whispered : " Blow towards her." I did so, and her figure 
wavered like a reed in the wind. I further observed that 
in descending it was with the same slowness even when 
naturally the muscles ceased to support the back. After 
receiving Holy Communion she rose three times in prayer 
but it was no longer towards the altar, but in the direction 
where I was kneeling. I thought : " What is the meaning 
of this? Is she showing herself? " But it was afterwards 
explained to my question, that as the Blessed Sacrament 
was no longer on the altar she made her thanksgiving 
towards the parish church, and that she rose as many times 
after Communion as she had special prayers to offer. 

So soon as the Archpriest was unvested, I went to him 
and asked : " May I speak to her now, and that in private? " 
The room was at once cleared, and I went to her and said : 
" This exhibition of yourself is very dangerous for your 
soul. I cannot imagine the depth of humility you need 
for your security." She calmly replied : " Indeed I need 
humility. Pray for me in your charity." " But," I re- 
joined, " to be talked about by thousands and gazed at by ' 

214 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

hundreds, as if you were something singular, and to be 
attacked by others as a hypocrite, really this is perilous 
for your soul." She replied in the same gentle tones : 
" Gladly would I be walled round from all mankind, but 
this is permitted for my greater confusion." " But," I said 
(in substance), " do not many people, as I hear, come to see 
you, and to ask your prayers, and to consult you, as if you 
were inspired ? And is not this dangerous for a sensitive 
young woman like you ? " She kept very tranquil under 
the attack, and whispered, with a tear trickling from her 
eyes : " The more need I have that all the world should 
pray for me. I speak only when my director commands 
me to do so." I then asked her two or three questions 
kindly, respecting myself, to which she replied briefly and 
appositely. Then I asked her prayers and left her to her 

At Florence, among other acquaintance we met the 
Misses O'Farrell, sisters to the Governor of Malta, and 
Father Nicholson, the Carmelite, who was on a visit to 
them. They invited us to join them in a visit to the 
church which contained the incorrupt body of St. Mary 
Magdalen of Pazzi, of which they had been promised a 
private inspection. It was only publicly exposed on her 
festival. But the fact that it was going to be exposed got 
wind, and we found the large church so crammed with 
people that it was with considerable difficulty that we 
reached the high altar under which it lay. On our way 
from the church the Misses O'Farrell heard of a remark- 
able case of sanctity and suffering. After some inquiry 
we found the house, and ascended to the second storey. 
We found an aged mother bound by her infirmities to an 
armchair, and her daughter, aged about thirty-five, upon 
a bed, whilst a young woman attended upon them both. 
We were cautioned not to go suddenly near the bed, 
lest we should cause a shock to the sufferer. Whilst the 

A utobiography of A rchbishop Ullathorne. 2 1 5 

ladies talked to the mother, I slowly approached the 
daughter, whose sufferings were such as I had never in my 
life witnessed. We were told that her legs were literally 
turned up upon her back, and that upon them she lay. 
The expression upon her features of patient suffering 
was indescribable. Her head and every limb shook and 
thrilled, whilst her lips moved in prayer. Catching sight 
of me at the bed-foot, contemplating her, she gave a little 
start ; I slowly raised my eyes and finger towards Heaven ; 
she raised her eyes in the same direction and went on with 
her prayer. Her whole frame seemed to be tortured as with 
a fire running through her nerves. The mother told us that 
her daughter had prayed long for the gift of suffering, and 
that she had been in this state of suffering for seven 
years. That, seeing her sufferings had made her so holy, 
at last she herself prayed for the gift of suffering, and 
that some time after she had begun that prayer 
she had lost the use of her limbs and was now bound 
to her chair. The neighbours, she said, and many 
good people were very good to them, and had provided 
them with the girl we saw, who served them very 
affectionately. A good priest, she added, had been 
exceedingly kind to them, had obtained the privilege of an 
altar in their room, where he said Mass for them every day ; 
"and this (she said) has rewarded us for all our sufferings.'' 
The good priest had also taken an interest in obtaining 
relics for them, and if we opened the folding doors that 
closed in the altar we should see them. On opening the 
doors we were surprised at the extraordinary number of 
relics that covered the back of the walls, the sides of the 
altar, and the back of the folding doors, like swarms of 
bees. I never saw so many authenticated relics together 
before. This spectacle of devout and patient suffering 
impressed me far more deeply than what I had seen at 
Sansovina, although suffering was not absent in that case. 

216 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

We went on to Bologna, and from there by the mail 
towards Mantua ; but when we arrived on the Austrian 
frontier at Mollia Gonsaraga, the Commissary of police, 
after examining our passports, declared that the lady 
could proceed no further. " Why ? " I asked. He declined 
giving a reason. The place was but a village. We were 
travelling by the postal courier. There was neither hotel 
in the place, nor vehicle to be had. I stepped down, took 
the commissary aside, and asked him : " If you were in my 
place, in charge of this lady, what would you do?" He 
replied : " I think the best thing you can do is to leave 
the lady here and go to Mantua yourself and see the First 
Commissary of Police." " Are you a married man ? " I 
asked. " Yes," he said, " and live with my family in that 
house." " Then will you take charge of this lady until I 
return ? " He promised to do so, and was very civil. He 
gave me a letter. I left Mrs. Hutchinson in company with 
his wife and went on to Mantua with the courier. Arriving 
there, after some search at midnight I found the First 
Commissary supping at the hotel. After reading the letter 
I presented, he said : " If the expense is no consideration, 
send a carriage for the lady, but stay here yourself and I 
will see whether she can go on or not." I did so, and Mrs. 
Hutchinson arrived under care of the Commissary with 
whom I had left her. It soon appeared that she was under 
his surveillance. He was a respectable man, and showed 
himself really inclined to be of service to us, so I made a 
friend of him, and invited him to dine with us. On 
visiting the First Commissary at his office, he looked at 
her passport, cast his eyes over Mrs. Hutchinson, and 
said : " This lady cannot go on." " Why ? " I asked. He was 
not at liberty to say. " What, then," I asked, " is to be 
done ? " He offered so to arrange my passport that I 
might return in her company. But how was I to obtain 
her luggage, which had been taken possession of by the 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 217 

Custom House. Guided by the officer from Mollia Gon- 
saraga, I made my way to the Custom House, leaving Mrs. 
Hutchinson at the hotel, no doubt still under surveillance. 
But she was calm though troubled, not knowing a word 
of Italian, and unable to understand the cause, which was 
a great mystery to me. I found three officials installed at 
the Custom House, all of whom were ready to speak 
together, and all positive that it was a grave case, that 
there was some great difficulty, and that the matter 
required time. I was referred to the police office. On 
our way we met a tall, genteel-looking young man, and 
my friend whispered to me that if I could secure his 
influence all would come right. He introduced me, but 
I found him stiff and formal, and he put difficulties in 
the way that I could not comprehend ; but he let it escape 
that it was una cosa politica. I immediately took out my 
notebook and recorded the words, with their date. 
Seeing, however, that neither I nor my friend from Mollia 
Gonsaraga could produce any impression, I hinted to him 
to drop behind and leave us together. I then began to 
tell him that I was a Catholic missioner returning from 
Rome, and to speak of the wonders of Australia. This 
interested and softened him, and he ended by saying 
that if I and the lady with the Commissary were ready 
at six o'clock in the morning, when the returned courier 
arrived, he would take care that all should be right for our 

On our arrival next morning at the office, Mrs. Hutchin- 
son's luggage was produced, thoroughly searched, and a 
long protocol produced, which we, the commissary, and the 
courier, had to sign, and then we received our passports, 
with a note upon mine which had further consequences. 
We engaged a carriage to take us back, and on leaving the 
commissary at Mollia Gonsaraga, I thanked him for all his 
kindness, and presented him with a couple of sovereigns, 

218 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

saying to him : " Tell the First Commissary that this is 
only the opening of the game ; he will hear more of it later 
on." On arrival at the gate of Parma the police, after 
inspecting the passports, declared that the lady could not 
enter the city. " Why?" I asked. " Because it is recorded 
on your passport that you are returning because she is not 
allowed to enter the Austrian territory." " But this," I said, 
" is not Austrian territory." " True," he replied, " but the 
lady's passport is not vise for return." " Where is the chief 
officer of police ? " I asked. " He is absent, and will not be 
home till late to-night." "Where is the lady to stay mean- 
while ? " I asked. " Here," he replied. It was in one of 
the towers of the gate, without even a roof that I could 
see. " You have our passports," I said, " and we can't 
move without them." I then called to the coachman : 
" Drive as fast as you can to the Eagle Hotel." Off we 
went, and two police after us. We reached the hotel in 
time to put Mrs. Hutchinson in a private room before the 
police came up. I met them at the door, and told them 
they could watch the exits as much as they liked, but, on 
the word of an Englishman, if they attempted to annoy 
the lady it would be at their peril. Late at night we saw 
the chief of police. He was a thorough gentleman. He 
said there was undoubtedly some great mistake ; but that 
when the Austrians began to finesse there was no end of it. 
He thought it would be best to give us both new passports 
to Florence, where we could see our own Ambassador. 

On arriving at Florence, our Ambassador, Lord Holland, 
explained the whole affair at once. He said that as Mrs. 
Hutchinson had given the name of Mrs. Colonel Hutchin- 
son, after the Scotch fashion, they had mistaken her for 
the Mrs. Colonel Hutchinson of the Irish family, who had 
assisted in the escape of Lavallete from prison in 1817, 
although she had been dead seven years. He himself, he 
added, was on the long list of prohibited persons, in conse- 

Autobiography of Archbishop Vllathorne. 219 

quence of his father's sympathy with Napoleon, until he 
was made Ambassador at Florence. He advised us to take 
boat at Leghorn to Genoa. 

We found Genoa in a high state of festivity, celebrating 
the coming of age of the son and heir of King Charles 
Albert. On that evening the magnificent Bay of Genoa 
was to be illuminated, and never did I see such a spectacle 
of the kind ! Meeting my old friend, Mr. Bodenham, of 
Herefordshire, there, he joined us in a boat ; but finding the 
boat too low for the view we got on board an English ship. 
All the vessels were drawn out in two rows, displaying their 
colours, with a long lane between, through which the Royal 
Family was to pass on to a floating island covered with a 
garden of plants and flowers. The Bay was covered with 
boats filled with spectators, each having a lantern in shape 
of a large coloured tulip at the head of its mast, so that as 
the night darkened the Bay looked like a large bed of tulips. 
At a signal gun from a frigate in the offing, the King and 
his family advanced down the channel between the shipping 
on a barge iu the form of an immense swan, which came 
majestically along, moved by silvered oars beneath its wings; 
and the Court followed in other barges. The whole party 
landed on the island in the middle of the bay. At the next 
signal the long quays sent up a succession of fireworks, 
\\ ith clusters of fire balloons. The next signal brought out 
a superb panorama ; all the mansions on the heights around 
the Bay were brought out in brilliant light, as well as groups 
of trees. This magic scene drew forth immense applause 
that mingled with bands of music upon the water. The 
lighthouse, on its lofty rock, at the entrance of the Bay, was 
next covered both rock and lighthouse with flames of 
fire ; and my friend, in his enthusiasm, cried out : " Well 
done lighthouse ! " The next addition to the vast scene 
was a volcano thrown between the lighthouse and city ! 
(Finally, amidst sounds of music, Milan Cathedral rose up 

22O Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

from the water, covered with light, in all its stateliness 
and grandeur. 

We joined a steamer in the early morning that had come 
from Civita Vecchia on its way to Marseilles ; and there 
found Archbishop Folding fast asleep on the deck, with 
Dr. Gregory standing beside him, and got the last news from 
him of Australian affairs in Rome 

On our arrival in London I drew up a statement of our 
treatment at Mantua, which Mrs. Hutchinson sent to her 
brother, one of the Scotch Lords of Session. He submitted 
it to Lord Aberdeen, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, who 
opened a correspondence with Prince Metternich on the 
subject. The Prince sent an ample apology, assuring Lord 
Aberdeen that the officials at Mantua had been severely 
rebuked ; yet, he added, they could not be altogether 
blamed, as the lady was so very much like the Mrs. Colonel 
Hutchinson in question : forgetting, if he ever knew, that 
she had been dead seven years. However, one good 
resulted, that all the proscribed names of English persons 
were expunged from the list. 

Some time before I left Coventry for Rome Mrs. Am- 
herst, of Kenilvvorth, had strongly recommended to my 
attention a person then residing at Bruges, whom she 
described as very religious, and possessing remarkable 
powers, and as distinguished for her wisdom as her charity; 
and who, she thought, would be of great value to the 
mission pf Coventry. This was the celebrated Mother 
Margaret Hallahan. 1 begged Mrs. Amherst to do her 
best to secure her services, for she was the very person that 
I stood in need of. She accepted the invitation, and when 
she was introduced to me by Mrs. Amherst I was much 
struck, not only by her remarkable figure, but still more by 
her great modesty, intelligence, and vigour. At her own 
suggestion she made a spiritual retreat in preparation for 
the work before her, and J:hen I appointed her to teach 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 221 

the girls' school.* But very soon afterwards I had to make 
the journey to Rome, and left her to make her own way. 
On my return I was gratified to find that " Sister Mar- 
garet," as she was already called by the people, had 
gathered a hundred girls into the school, had found out all 
the sick and distressed people of the congregation, and was 
taking great care of them, and had already associated 
several respectable young women with her, who were 
devoted to her and her works of charity. But for an 
ample account of her zealous and most fruitful labours, I 
must refer to the well-known " Life of Mother Margaret 

* Dr. Ullathorne's first impressions of Mother Margaret are thus 
expressed in a letter written to Bishop Brown, of Wales, dated 
May 8th, 1842, just before starting for Rome : " I leave this 
mission," he says, "just when it had begun to develop. I have 
recently received a very valuable aid in a person a sort of Sister 
of Charity from Belgium ; she is English, able to teach my 
girls' school, visit the sick, and give instructions ; and 1 had calcu- 
lated on having two more very soon, whom I should have found no 
great difficulty in supporting. It would probably have been the germ 
of an institute. This person will remain till I return." Two years 
later (January, 1844) he writes to the same friend : " Being now free 
from Adelaide I shall feel at liberty to work on, providing for the 
wants of this great population. I hope to have a third poor school 
in operation before long. The work that I have most before me at 
this moment is the commencement of a convent. I propose estab- 
lishing and applying the Third Order of St. Dominic as Sisters of 
Charity, through the instrumentality of Sister Margaret. I am wait- 
ing to see the Provincial, and so soon as I have his concurrence 
I am ready to begin with four excellent persons, all thorough 
workers, with good sound sense and solid devotion. Sister Margaret 
is invaluable. The quantity of good works and charities that pass 
through her hands is almost inexplicable. The manner she is 
spiritualising this congregation is admirable ; and all this amidst a 
good deal of personal suffering." 

t It was during the earlier part of his residence at Coventry that 
Dr. Ullathorne published a volume of sermons with a remarkable 
preface on the subject of preaching. This volume contains, amongst 
others, the famous sermon on drunkenness which has often since 
been reprinted. Referring to it in one of his letters he says : " The 
sermon on drunkenness was taken in part from St. Chrysostom. 
There was a man at Sydney to whom it was given by one of the 

222 Autobiography of Arc/ibis hop Ullathorne. 

Soon after, I was honoured with the visit of two dis- 
tinguished prelates. Archbishop Folding had appointed 
to meet Monseigneur de Forbin-Janson, a Prince in his 
own right as well as a bishop, at my poor cottage, where 
I gave them the best hospitality I could. Their object in 
meeting was to visit the Earl of Derby at his country 
mansion, to plead for the release of the Canadian prisoners 
transported to New South Wales for their part in the 
Canadian insurrection. They were all respectable men, 
farmers or farmers' sons, of French descent ; their main 
object was to protect the property of the Church. They 
were kept aloof from the criminal convicts, placed at a 
Government farm, and had conducted themselves with 
great propriety. 

As I found the Archbishop in difficulties as to whom to 
recommend for the Bishopric of Hobart Town, I took the 
opportunity strongly to recommend Father Willson, of 
Nottingham, to his attention, pointing out his remarkable 
qualities and his singular fitness for that Penal settlement. 
He was consequently recommended to the Holy See, was 
appointed, and ultimately placed under obedience to accept 
the office. With Father Willson I was intimately acquainted. 
He had taken a great interest in the Australian Mission on 
my first visit to England in 1837 and 1838. I had often 
visited him, had seen his great influence, and the way in 
which he worked his mission. I paid him a visit whilst he 
was building the Cathedral of St. Barnabas, and observed 
his skill in matters of business. 

On that occasion he expressed a great desire to know 
the nature of the Institute of the Fathers of Charity, 
founded by the celebrated Rosmini, who had recently 
established their head-quarters at Loughborough. On that 

priests, and who after reading it attentively remarked, ' the gentleman 
who wrote this must have been a hard drinker in his day] little 
thinking that it had been written by one who by necessity, no less 
than inclination, had always been a water drinker." 

Autobiography of ArchbisJiop Ullathorne. 223 

hint I went over to visit them, and told Dr. Pagani, then 
their Superior, that I had visited their Founder in Turin 
with the view of proposing a filiation in Australia, but had 
missed finding him, and that I had heard adverse remarks, 
and wished therefore to know the real nature of their 
Institute. Dr. Pagani said that I was the first person to 
make inquiries of them, and that he would be glad to give 
me the fullest information. He put the Rule into my 
hands, and also the Meditations in manuscript which their 
Founder had drawn up for the retreats of his disciples. I 
was struck with a certain originality in the Rule, and with 
a singular freshness in the Meditations ; and I spent the 
greatest part of two days and nights making extracts 
from them ; and was then able to give an account of their 
system to Father Willson. Later on I made a spiritual 
retreat at Loughborough, under Dr. Gentili, and we had 
much conversation, not only about the English Mission, 
but specially on the great importance of beginning a series 
of missions or retreats to the people under the approval of 
the Bishops. I found him quite prepared for such a work, 
and, as I was then publishing a volume of sermons with 
prefaces, in the general preface I introduced the subject. 
This led Dean Gafifney, of Maynooth, to write to me, re- 
commending me to begin the work, and offering to pick 
out from the College young and duly qualified men to 
assist me. But I already had my engagements under 
obedience. Being invited by Mr. de Lisle to preach at 
the blessing of the Calvary erected by him on the Grace 
Dieu Rocks, I again met Dr. Gentili, and we renewed the 
subject of preaching missions. Soon after he was invited 
by Father Willson to make a beginning at Nottingham, 
and not long after, in 1845, he and Father Furlong gave 
the great mission at Coventry which I have described in 
the Appendix to his Life.* 

Before Bishop Willson consented to be consecrated, it 
* This mission was begun on May 2ist, 1845. 

224 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

was arranged that the Archbishop of Sydney should meet 
him at my house, for the purpose of settling certain affairs, 
in which I was requested to arbitrate between them should 
it become needful. The principal point insisted upon was 
that Father Therry should be recalled from Hobart Town 
before the Bishop's arrival. This was agreed to, but 
unfortunately was not done, which occasioned the Bishop 
many and long troubles : for although Father Therry was 
a good man, he was not a man of business. For an account 
of Bishop Willson's successful episcopate in that penal 
settlement, I must refer to the memoir of him which I 
wrote in the Dublin Revieiv of July, 1887. 

There is a passage in the life of Mother Margaret Hal- 
lahan, in which she takes credit for having prevented my 
return to Australia with Bishop Willson,through the prayers 
of the people. This seems the proper place in which to tell 
the whole of that story. 

The consecration of Bishop Willson e took place at the 
Birmingham Cathedral, and, at the Bishop's request, I acted 
as his secretary, and read his Brief. After the rite was 
completed, and I was assisting at his unvesting in the 
sacristy, I said to him : " Now that the mitre is on your 
head, and not on mine, I have no objection to go out and 
help you." He looked up at me, and said : u Are you in 
earnest ? " I replied : " As long as I am safe from the mitre, 
with leave of superiors, I am indifferent where I am sent." 
He said: "I shall certainly write to your President-General." 
About a week after, I received a letter from Dr. Barber^ 
then President-General, saying that he had received an 
application from Bishop Willson for my services, and asking 
my own mind on the subject. I replied that my sole object 
in leaving Australia was to avoid the office of Bishop, but 
that, exempt from that peril, I was completely indifferent as 
to where I was placed, subject to my Superior's approval. 
Dr. Barber wrote, in reply, that he felt I might, with my 
experience of the Colonies, be very useful to the new 

Autobiography of ^Archbishop Ullathorne. 225 

Bishop ; that Coventry was now on a fair footing to go on, 
and that, if the Bishop renewed his application, he would 
feel it his duty to let me go with him. I then told Mother 
Margaret that I expected to be summoned to return with 
Bishop Willson to Australia. Her reply was : " No, you 
will not. The Blessed Virgin will take care of that." 
Having her assembly of pious people for the Rosary that 
night, she sent messages through them to the houses of 
the Catholics, requesting them to watch during the whole 
of that night, and to pray especially for her intention. 
After that, I heard not a word more either from Dr. 
Barber or from Bishop Willson. I did my best to assist 
him in his preparations, and bade him farewell ; but not a 
word of explanation escaped from his lips. 

After he had visited the Archbishop of Sydney he wrote 
me a letter, in which, among other things, he said : " The 
next time I see you I shall have to go down on my knees." 
The Bishop came to England to lay the condition of Norfolk 
Island before the Government, soon after my consecration 
to the Western District. We met at Prior Park, where we 
dined together. Talking by ourselves after dinner, I asked 
him: " Why did you write to me that, when you saw me, 
you would have to go on your knees?" He started up, 
burst into tears, and said : " I will go on my knees directly." 
" No," I said, " I will not allow it. But what did it mean ?" 
He then told me that he was just going to write for me to 
Dr. Barber, when he suddenly reflected : " Why is this man 
here? He began the work in Australia and ought to be 
there. There may be something wrong. And knowing 
that I was intimate with Dr. Gentili, he went over to Lough- 
borough to consult him on the subject. They could neither 
of them explain the mystery, and the Doctor said : " You 
had better not risk it." " But," concluded the Bishop, " I 
had not been in Sydney two days before I saw through the 
whole of what you must have gone through ; and I only 
wonder that it did not kill you." 



THE congregation of Coventry began rapidly to increase ; 
the little chapel was excessively crowded, and it became 
necessary to think seriously of building a church in its 
place. As its position was by no means central, I 
examined various situations in more central positions, but 
could find none that were purchaseable that would not have 
involved the removal of buildings that would have made 
the ground very costly. There was ample space in the 
garden attached to the old missionary premises, and I 
therefore resolved, with the approval of the Provincial, to 
build the church in the old position. Mr. Charles Hansom 
was a young Catholic architect and Town Surveyor of 
Coventry ; but he was more acquainted with the Greek 
and Palladian than with the Gothic styles. However, we 
put our heads together, made a study of the Gothic, visited 
and measured the old Catholic churches in several counties, 
made a tour through Belgium and on to Cologne, and, 
finally, fixed on the lancet style of the thirteenth century 
for the nave, which I proposed should be developed into 
the Early Decorated for the chancel and later chapels. But 
the funds had to be raised for the work, and after estab- 
lishing a weekly collection in the congregation I went 
forth and solicited alms over the most populous parts of 
England.* This was a new experience, and one that taught 

* The foundation-stone of Coventry Church was laid on May 29th, 
1843. I n that and the following year Dr. Ullathorne travelled over 
many parts of England collecting alms. He writes from London : 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 227 

me many useful things. Happily, I received a large con- 
tribution from Mr. Charles Eyre, of Bruges, an old friend 
of Mother Margaret Hallahan's, which helped us much. I 
had left a considerable library in Sydney ; this, I thought, 
ought not to be removed from a country where books of 
that valuable kind were scarce. I therefore proposed to 
the Archbishop of Sydney to leave them there on con- 
dition of receiving 150 to buy a set of the Fathers. But 
the sum went to the building account. 

The nave was built first with the tower, and was con- 
structed with unusual solidity for the time. Our great 
difficulty was to find a sculptor, for architectural sculpture 
was, at that time, a lost art, that was only beginning to be 
revived under the celebrated Welby Pugin. However, we 
found a farmer's boy, who, though untutored, had a genius 
for that kind of art, and with the help of casts with which 
we provided him he succeeded tolerably well. It was in the 

"Hitherto begging has been pleasant enough ; I suppose I shall find 
its pleasures diminish as time goes on. I walk some twenty miles a 
day on the London pavements without any excessive fatigue, because 
I have nobody to talk balderdash about it at the end." From York 
(July, 1844) he writes : "Father Mathew has been here, and has made 
a great sensation. He is making a tour through England. I should 
have no difficulty in bringing him to Coventry, but I have not decided, 
nor do I at present feel disposed to do so, though we might easily have 
St. Mary's Hall, and a great sensation would be the result. But I 
scarcely know how far it would be prudent to engage myself in what 
is called the temperance movement. I shall consider the two sides 
of the question before I decide. It is rarely I have to deliberate on 
any subject ; but there really are two sides to this question as regards 
this country ; yet I feel a bias towards the temperance movement, 
though it be in excess and attended by accidental dangers of 

He also made a tour in Belgium, where he received considerable 
subscriptions. It appears to have been his first visit to that country, 
and at Bruges he was equally delighted with the church architecture, 
and indignant with the modern ornaments added in French and 
Roman style to the mediceval Gothic. " How I should like," he says, 
" to grind the noses off the faces of the men who are changing so 
many of the fine old Gothic fronts of the houses into modern flat 
ones !" 

228 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

early time of transition from the old chapels to churches ; 
St. Chad's and the church at Derby were alone completed, 
and no one of the later generations can realise the shifts 
to which we were put for funds as well as for builders to 
realise our designs. But when Pugin examined the plans, 
and afterwards the completed structure, he not only com- 
mended its solidity, but considered it to be a pure revival 
of the style of the thirteenth century. The nave was first 
completed with the chancel arch bricked up, and then, with 
a temporary altar, wo took possession ot it. We had now 
a great deal more space which soon filled, and, at the evening 
services, became closely packed, every standing place being 
filled as well as the seats. At those evening services I 
adopted the method of the Fathers, and gave expositions 
of large portions of books of Holy Scripture. I gave 
lectures on the beginning of Genesis, and explained the 
Creation : this drew a number of Freethinkers as well as 
others. I explained the Epistles of St. Paul to the 
Romans and to the Galatians : this drew a considerable 
number of Dissenters. I took the history of the Patriarchs, 
and this awakened general interest. But though I gave 
out the text of Scripture part by 'part as I advanced, I was 
not so tied to the text as not to expatiate freely on any 
point of doctrine or moral teaching that the text suggested, 
after the manner of the Fathers. 

I found not only that this method was effective in 
drawing full congregations, but that it led to many con- 
versions. And I have no hesitation in saying that, for 
evening lectures, whoever is versed in the Holy Scriptures 
and in the manners and customs of the Holy Land, will 
find this method one of the most effective that can be 
adopted. It \vas the method of the Church for 1,200 
years. But here let me tell an anecdote. After I was 
removed to the See of Birmingham, I adopted much the 
same method of Scriptural instruction in the Lenten 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 229 

evening lectures at the Cathedral. Some, however, of the 
reverend clergy did not relish this revived method of in- 
struction, though the people delighted in it. As there was 
not a little twittering among them about it, I resolved to 
put an end to it. So on ascending the pulpit on Sunday 
evening, I said to the congregation : " You, my brethren, 
who are of opinion that your Bishop should instruct you 
according to his own judgment, and not according to the 
judgment of other persons, please to hold up your hands." 
A thousand hands were lifted up, and I heard of no more 

Sometimes curious cases would occur. For instance, a 
girl who had lost her mother became a pious convert in 
the school, but her father was a complete infidel. He 
came with her to church sometimes, but there was no 
getting him to say a prayer. He was a working man, 
who had dabbled in the ologies. He talked to me about 
his love and worship of nature, and the four elements. 
" Elements," I asked, " what elements ? " " The four 
elements," he replied. " You, a chemist," I answered, 
" and talk of the four elements ! Come to the church on 
Sunday and hear what I shall say to you." He came, and 
I took for my text, " From invisible things all things 
visible were created." I went into the subject of invisible 
causes ; from that I passed to the one supreme cause, and 
so to Creation and Providence ; and illustrated my theme 
by showing how all visible and material things are con- 
vertible into invisible elements by the application of 
science, when they are more the objects of science than 
in their concrete forms. After the instruction the man 
came to me in the sacristy and said : " Sir, I shall be ever 
grateful to you. You have proved me to be a fool." 
" Just what I wanted you to know," I said. " It is the 
first step to your becoming wise. Now you must begin to 
say your prayers." He did so; but a fortnight afterwards 

230 Autobiography of Archbislwp Ullathorne. 

there was a violent knocking at the door at midnight. I 
went down, and found the same man there in a state of 
vehement excitement. He said : " Feel my heart." It 
was beating like a hammer. I got him inside, soothed and 
tranquillised him, and then he said : " I can't pray ; I have 
no belief." I told him to go home and rest, and come to 
me next day. He was quieter then, and I asked him : 
" Have you more confidence in my knowledge than in 
yours ? " "I have," he said. " Well, on my knowledge 
begin again to say your prayers with your daughter, and 
come to me for instructions." He did so, and became a 
steady Christian. 

Another opportunity for instruction arose in the school- 
room. After Mother Margaret arrived, she had a de- 
votional little altar placed in the girls' school, and put a 
triptich upon it, in which she enshrined her favourite little 
statue of the Blessed Virgin. Three nights in the week 
she got a number of girls and women together, and they 
sang the Litany of Loreto and said the Rosary. The 
number of persons drawn to this devotion increased until 
the girls' school had to be opened into the boys' school, 
and the two rooms became crowded with men as well as 
women. Strangers carne in numbers, and as the weekly 
collections for building the church were paid there every 
Monday night, I went to the school, and after the 
devotions were ended and the collections received I sat 
down and gave a familiar sort of fireside talk. At one 
time I took the people in imagination to Rome, and 
described to them the churches and devotions. At 
another, I got them to the Holy Land, and described the 
holy places. Now we went into the Catholic antiquities 
of Coventry and its old religious customs ; then some 
sketches of voyages and travels were given ; at another 
time it was the picturesque life of some Saint, or a series of 
anecdotes, or the invention of a parable or two. On these 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 231 

familiar talks the ears of the people hung with attention, 
and the place was generally crowded. Then the young 
women devoted to Mother Margaret would ask this or that 
woman, when they saw her to be a stranger and interested, 
if she would like to speak to Mother Margaret. This led 
to interviews after the rest were gone away, when a few 
pithy words would often lead to conversions. Sometimes 
men also asked friends they had brought to come and have 
a word with me. What then passed in the schoolrooms 
got talked about in the town, and in the ribbon factories, 
which drew other persons to come and listen. 

After the church was completed it drew numbers of 
people of all classes to see it when unoccupied. It was a 
new thing to see a Catholic church, with all its Catholic 
appointments, just like the old churches as they were 
furnished in the Middle Ages ; and I had a person there to 
let me know when there were several visitors. I then went 
in and explained to them both the church and all its 
symbolism, with which the congregation was made 
thoroughly acquainted. This sometimes led to interesting 
conversations on the Catholic religion, and catechisms were 

In instructing converts, I never brought them* into 
classes ; I observed that this made them shy, and that they 
preferred coming alone. I found also that by instructing 
them one by one it was easier to adapt even a shorter 
instruction to their individual states of mind and several 
characters. But I had a remedy for those briefer times 
of instruction, which I found very valuable. If the 
neophyte was a man, I introduced him to some Catholic 
man of the same class on whom I could rely ; if a woman, 
she was introduced to some devout Catholic woman. 
These I appointed as sponsors ; they had them by them 
in church, taught them Catholic customs and manners, 
answered their questions, and made them acquainted with 

232 A titobiog raphy of A rchbishop U II at home. 

other Catholics so that they did not come into the church 
as isolated persons. Those were happy days. The 
growing congregation was united like a family. I had all 
sorts of help, including, after the church was built, two 
Reverend Fathers, instead of one. We said Mass at 
Kenilworth also on Sundays and festivals, which was the 
beginning of that mission. We had a lending library in 
the school, and books were given out and received each 
Sunday afternoon, when many of the people spent their 
time about the enclosure round the church, to which they 
were devoted. At the time when I was called from 
Coventry to other work we were receiving converts at the 
rate of a hundred a year. 

Before the chancel could be begun it was necessary to 
pull the house down, and I rented a house of considerable 
size in an adjoining street. My reason for this was that 
Mother Margaret and I had already planned the beginning 
of a Religious Community of Dominican Tertiaries, and 
this required a series of rooms and a chapel for their use ; 
and it became expedient to place the other clergy in other 
lodgings. This was not done without the formal approval 
both of the Provincial and of the Bishop. The novitiate 
was begun, and was conducted under my general 
directions ; Mother Margaret, who was already a professed 
Tertiary, managing the details of observance, and infusing 
her vigorous religious spirit into the novices, who already 
began their active works of charity as part of their formation. 

When the chancel was completed, and the partition 
wall removed, the people on their entering the church on 
the following Sunday, were struck with wonder and 
admiration at the scene presented to them. The deep 
sanctuary, the large east window, rich in colour with its 
Saints and tracery ; the light rood screen, with its rood 
loft, holy rood, and impressive figures ; the beautiful lateral 
arches opening into parclosed chapels, to the expenses of 

Autobiography of Archbishop UllatJiorne. 233 

which they had specially contributed ; the high altar, richly 
decorated ; and the stalls for the clergy and the choir, 
filled them with delight and rewarded them for all their 
sacrifices. For the first time in their lives they saw a real 
Catholic church, and never tired of being taught what, in 
all its details, it symbolically expressed to their senses. It 
was consecrated by Bishop (afterwards Cardinal) Wiseman 
in the year 1845, and on the following day all the Bishops 
of England assisted at the solemn opening, which was 
attended by many of the Catholic gentry of that and 
neighbouring counties. In the afternoon a great enter- 
tainment was given to the Bishops and the visitors in the 
old Catholic Guild Hall, which was filled with guests. 

On that occasion I first put on the full Benedictine 
habit, and in that costume received those who came to the 
opening, and put them in their places. But the habit had 
been unknown in England since the time of Queen Mary, 
and some of those who came to the opening did not 
relish its appearance. About that time I was invited to 
preach at the opening of the Church of St. Edmund, 
Liverpool ; but when I replied that as a Benedictine I 
always preached in the habit of the Order, I received a 
reply from the venerable Father at the head of that church 
that " another preacher would be provided." On being 
asked to preach at the old Sardinian Chapel in London, I 
went up to the pulpit in the habit of my Order, as a 
matter of course ; but on returning to the sacristy I 
encountered a sharp rebuke from the senior priest, who was 
warmly indignant. Much of the old timidity of the 
persecuting days was still to be found in England, but in 
the Colonies we had learned greater freedom. Cardinal 
Wiseman was also teaching the English Catholics to bring 
forth all our religious practices openly and without disguise.* 

* About this time Dr. Ullathorne paid a visit to Downside, and his 
feelings on revisiting his old Monastery are expressed in an interesting 

234 Autobiography of ArcJibishop Ullathorne. 

As there once at least existed an impression on the mind 
of some of our leading ecclesiastics that I was a devoted 
follower of the philosophy of Rosmini, I think it well to 
leave on record what had always been my real views on that 
subject. From the time that I formed acquaintance with 
his disciples at Loughborough, I admired the Rule of the 
Order, as I have said, and also the Founder's system of 
spiritual exercises, and made more than one reteat under the 
Fathers. But Dr. Gentili spoke much to me about a book 
by their Founder, still in manuscript, called the " Cinque 
Piaghe." When that book was published in Italy and I 
had read it, I wrote to Dr. Pagani, telling him that I thought 
there were very grave points in it : I believe my observations 
were sent to the author. This was some time before it was 
placed on the Index. The Fathers i their kindness sent 
me all the works of Rosmini as they were published. In 
the order of their publication I read them, and as they 
made a large display of books on my shelves this probably 
led to the impression of my being a follower of his 
philosophy. But though I found much to admire in those 
writings, in his philosophy I detected what I considered to 
be grave and fundamental errors which would not stand by 
the common teaching of the Church. The first thing to 
which my attention was awakened was a doctrine in the 
first volume of his psychology where he describes the 
generation of man. He there describes the formation of 
the soul as being a touch of Divine light upon the materia 

etter written from thence, and dated " Saturday after Ascension, 
1884": " I have been here since Thursday night, and must leave on 
Monday. Everything here edifies: good discipline, perfect obedience 
and observance, silence at all due times, and an admirable spirit of 
fraternal charity. Downside was never in better order. I attend 
choir, meditate, and think over all that has passed since I left this 
peaceful and happy abode, and would be glad to remain here always. 
Everything tells me how much I have lost, gaining in nothing but 
this poor world's wisdom and conceit, since I left the cloister some 
fourteen years ago." 

Autobiography of Archbishop UllatJiorne. 235 

deposita, upon the embryo. This description evidently left 
out any created spiritual substance of the soul, and the 
context left the meaning clear. I then wrote to Dr. Pagani 
and had repeated conversations with Dr. Berletti, in which 
I asked how the spiritual substance of the soul was to be 
accounted for. My difficulty was sent to Rosmini himself. 
In reply, I was always told that I must wait for other books 
still in manuscript, the titles of which were mentioned. 

I waited for one book after another, but the explanation 
did not come. At last the volume " De Reali " appeared, 
and on receiving it I was told that I should find in it what 
I sought. But instead of finding the desired explanation, 
to my astonishment I found this doctrine, that " Creation 
is division in God ; that this was not Pantheism because 
Pantheism taught that all things were God." Soon after 
discovering this error, so fundamentally opposed to the 
teaching of the Church respecting Creation, I received a 
letter from a secular priest, in the West of England, telling 
me that he had long been devoted to Rosmini's philosophy 
but that he had had doubts and misgivings about it for 
some time past, and asking me to give him my mind on 
the subject. In reply I wrote a long letter, telling him of the 
fundamental errors which I had observed in that philosophy 
Many years later on I received a letter from Cardinal 
Newman, informing me that a letter had come to him from 
the then representative of the Order in Rome, asking him 
as a particular favour for a letter that might be a support 
to him in a special audience with the Sovereign Pontiff. 
Apprehensive that this audience might concern the writings 
of Rosmini, I recommended His Eminence to be cautious 
what he wrote, and gave him an account of the grave errors 
to be found in his philosophy. This must have been about 
the time when the second examination of these works 
began, including the posthumous publications. For about 
two or three years later came forth the Decree of the 

236 Autobiography of ArchbtsJiop Ullatlwrne. 

Holy Office condemning forty propositions contained in 
these works. I must not dismiss the subject without bear- 
ing testimony to the religious spirit and energetic labours 
of the Fathers of Charity in this country. 

Bishop Baines, of the Western District of England, died 
suddenly in July, 1843, on tne night after he had officiated 
at the opening of St. Mary's Church, Bristol. And I was 
informed at a later time, by Dr. Grant, then secretary to 
Cardinal Acton, that Propaganda proposed to Gregory XVI. 
that Bishop Brown of the Welsh District should be trans- 
ferred to the Western District, and that I should be ap- 
pointed to succeed Bishop Brown in Wales. This was con- 
firmed by a letter received from Bishop Brown at the time, 
in which he asked me whether, in the event of my being ap- 
pointed to succeed him, I would take to the house which he 
was about to engage for his residence at Chepstow. In my 
reply I said that I thought it very unlikely that I should be 
appointed, and even more unlikely that I should accept ; 
but that, as he had put a definite question, I ought not to 
leave him without a definite answer. That my opinion had 
always been that a Vicar-Apostolic should live in the 
principal town or city of his district, where he could 
exercise most influence, be surrounded by a body of clergy, 
and perform the episcopal functions in the most becoming 
way. Chepstow would not, therefore, be a place that I 
should choose for a residence. 

But when this proposal was carried to the Sovereign 
Pontiff, His Holiness immediately replied : " No, no, questo 
Monsignore Baggs." 

Dr. Baggs was Rector of the English College in Rome, 
was well known to the Pope, and a favourite. He was ap- 
pointed to the Western District, and I escaped for the 
time. But only for a time. For when Bishop Baggs took 
the district in hand he found things in great confusion, and 
was so severely tried that it hastened his end. He died on 

Autobiography of ArcJibiskop U Hat home. 237 

October i6th, 1845. But before he died he gave to the 
Rev. Mr. Parfitt a letter, which was to be delivered to his 
successor. That letter came, of course, into my hands. In 
it he wrote of the great trials he had gone through, and 
stated that it had been his intention to go abroad (to 
Rome, I suppose), and there to resign his office. 

The office remained vacant for an unusual time. But 
in the month of May, 1846, I received a letter from 
Cardinal Acton, informing me that I was appointed to 
the Western District, urging me not to refuse the ap- 
pointment, and pointing out that in these days the episco- 
pate, in England, was more a burden than an honour. This 
was a great blow to my feelings. All was going on so 
well at Coventry, making those the happiest days of my 
life. The house had just been completed and I had de- 
signed it for a small Community of Fathers, hoping to show 
in the course of time that with the endowment already ex- 
isting, and with the adjoining population in the colliery 
district, work and maintenance might be found to support 
a little Community. The Dominican Sisters had been 
recently professed, and I was looking out for a position 
at the other end of the city in which to place them in a 
convent of their own. Were all these plans to come to 
an end ? I went to Mother Margaret in the school, and 
gave her a look which she at once understood. She put 
a child down from her knee, followed me to the house, and 
said : " I see you are made a Bishop." " Not," I replied, 
" if I can get out of it." On the same day I went to Stan- 
brook, to lay the case before Dr. Barber, my old Prior, and 
now my Provincial. He was a grave, elderly, and spiritual 
minded man, and had long been my confessor before I went 
to Australia. Before him I laid all my objections, after 
which he represented to me the confusion and trouble that 
had so long prevailed in that district, the difficulties to be 
surmounted, and gave it as his decided opinion that the 

238 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathornc. 

experience I had obtained would enable me to surmount 
what a less experienced person would not be able to 
manage so well. But on my saying that I never would 
accept a mitre except under obedience, my Superior 
answered : " As far as I can I give you that obedience." 
This settled me : and I wrote to Cardinal Acton that I 
submitted to the burden. Bishop Walsh came over from 
Birmingham in great kindness to encourage me and give 
me some useful hints about the consecration. Bishop 
Griffiths, of London, was also kind and brotherly. Bishop 
Wiseman sent me the Bishop of Bellay's book, " The 
Practice of a New Bishop," which with Barbosa's chapters 
on the spiritual qualities required in a bishop, in his work 
" De Episcopate," assisted me in making the preparatory 

During this retreat I reflected much on the importance 
of obtaining a change from the provisional state of Vicars- 
Apostolic to that of Hierarchical Ordinaries, as had been 
already accomplished for Australia. I also thought much 
of the importance of establishing Ecclesiastical Seminaries 
on the principles laid down by the Council of Trent, in 
which the ecclesiastical sciences might be learnt, and the 
discipline of a diocese acquired under men exclusively 
devoted to that work, instead of those mixed colleges in 
which secular studies were, as a matter of course, the 
predominant feature. These views took strong possession 
of my mind. 

My consecration as Bishop of Hetalona, appointed Vicar- 
Apostolic to the Western District, took place at Coventry 
on Sunday, June 2ist, 1846. Bishop Briggs, the senior 
Vicar- Apostolic, was the consecrating Bishop ; Bishops 
Griffiths and Wareing were the assistants, and Bishop 
Wiseman the preacher. It was on the same day on which 
Pope Pius IX. was crowned. All the Bishops of England 
were kind enough to be present, also Dr. Brady, the Bishop 

Autobiography of Archbishop UllatJiorne. 239 

of Perth, in Western Australia. Dr. Newman and his 
companions, recently received into the Church, and but 
just arrived at Oscott, were also present. I can never 
forget the light and sense that streamed upon my mind 
when, after the consecration was completed, the mitre was 
placed by the three Bishops on my head, or the resolutions 
I then formed, never to rest until the Hierarchy of 
Ordinary Bishops was obtained. I would gladly have 
had the sacred rite followed by three days of deep silence 
for the sake of reflection, as prescribed by St. Benedict to 
be observed after religious profession, instead of having to 
entertain the Bishops and other visitors at an hotel. But 
hospitality was an especial duty ; and the Bishops had 
received me into their number with the open-hearted 
confidence of their brotherhood. 

Although freed at my appointment from the Coventry 
Mission, I had to provide for the future of Mother Margaret 
and her Dominican Community ; and upon an under- 
standing with Bishop Walsh, I arranged to bring them 
into the Western District so soon as I could find a suitable 
place for them. I had next to part with the good and 
pious congregation, which had been so great a consolation 
to me. I knew them all so well, with all their little 
histories, and had received many of them into the Church. 
But few of them had ever caused me any trouble, and being 
mostly of one class industrious ribbon weavers or watch- 
makers they were like one family. They presented me 
with a beautiful chalice, for which they subscribed ^40, 
and invited Father Aylward, the Dominican, from Hinckley, 
to be their spokesman. We parted at a great meeting 
outside the church, where the chalice was presented, not 
without many tears ; and I promised that I would use 
their gift at the altar to remind me of them, a promise I 
kept for forty years. 



AT the time when I succeeded to the Western District, 
Dr. Brindle was Vicar-General of that district as well as 
President of the College of Prior Park, which had been 
the residence of the two former Bishops. I had written to 
him to say that I should proceed to Prior Park, and should 
remain there a month to show my interest in the establish- 
ment ; but that I should afterwards take up my residence 
in Bristol. My reason for this was that Bristol is the most 
populous city in the district ; that it appeared to me to be 
the most suitable centre for the diocese, and that there was 
room amid the population for several missions and for 
expanding the influence of religion. As to Bath, it was 
already in possession of my Benedictine brethren. But, as 
Bishop, it was my duty to place myself at the head of the 
secular clergy who had no other Superior, and gradually to 
gather a staff of picked men around me. 

The extensive and imposing range of buildings which 
form the College of Prior Park were built by an Italian 
architect in the reign of Queen Anne, as a mansion for the 
celebrated Mr. Allen, a man of great wealth derived from 
the West Indies. The grounds amid which it is placed 
are very beautiful, and the whole presents a striking, and 
even classical, picture from the city of Bath. Its name of 
Prior Park is much older, it having been the site of the 
country residence of the Prior of Bath, which in the olden 
time had its chapter of Benedictines. As the mansion of 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ulfathorne. 241 

Mr. Allen it was much visited by Pope, Fielding, and other 
literary men ; and Mr. Allen was the prototype of Squire 
Alhvorthy in Fielding's''" Tom Jones." It finally passed 
into the hands of a speculator, who was said to have nearly 
paid the purchase-money with the magnificent timber he 
cut down. From him Bishop Baines bought the whole 
property, intending the central mansion for the episcopal 
residence, and the two wings, with their double corridors of 
communication, for two distinct colleges (the one devoted 
to the study of the humanities, and the other for the 
sciences). ' This required a great deal of alteration and new 
construction ; in fact, something approaching to a Univer- 
sity was contemplated. 

After Prior Park had been occupied for a certain time as 
a college, the interior and central roof of the mansion were 
burnt down by a great fire. But the Bishop bought an 
unfinished and highly ornamental mansion that was for sale 
in Bristol, and with the help of its materials restored the 
mansion in greater splendour than before, raising the 
central hall up to the very roof of the building. This very 
much increased the debts and difficulties. 

Prior Park exhibited a striking example at that time of 
what I have seen in a less degree in other places. It was 
originally intended as a palatial residence, and was still 
exhibited as a show place twice a week to the visitors at 
Bath. Externally it was a magnificent prte ; 
was adorned with many pictures and other costly furniture. 
But when an institution intended for laborious work is sur- 
rounded with much material magnificence the men engaged 
on it are too apt to depend rather on material display than 
on the character of the work which should give life and 
power to the establishment. It was the weakness of the 
Jews rebuked by the Prophet Jeremias.* They too often 
measured the greatness of their religion by the magnificence 
* Jeremias vii. 4. 



242 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

of the Temple in which it was enshrined. When buildings 
are plain and simple men feel that they must rely on them- 
selves for success.* 

Dr. English, afterwards Archbishop of Trinidad, came to 
Coventry to accompany me to Bath, where I stayed with 
Mr. Robert Tichborne, and the next day went up to Prior 
Park in his carriage, attended by Father Cooper of Bath, 
and Father Vaughan, afterwards Bishop of Plymouth, who 
was at that time President of St. Paul's College, the Rev. 
Mr. Parfitt being President of St. Peter's. On my arrival 
I was publicly received according to the ritual, and a large 
party of clergy and laity were invited to meet me at dinner. 
There were at that time at Prior Park, teaching the classics, 
Messrs. Neve, Estcourt, Collins, and Capes ; all recent con- 
verts. Mr. Northcote and Mr. Healy Thompson were 
residing at Bath, but had not as yet taken any share in the 
work of the College. I invited Mr. Northcote to the 
College as Prefect of Studies, and Mr. Healy Thompson 
as professor, taking Mr. Estcourt as my secretary. At 
this time I received a letter from Archbishop Polding, just 

* There is one authentic anecdote, often related by Dr. Ullathorne 
connected with some of the architectural adornments of Prior Park, 
which is too amusing to be passed over. The original architect had 
placed a series of stone statues of the pagan gods over the corridors 
that formed the communication between the central mansion and the 
wings. Bishop Baines called in an artist, who, with the help of canvas 
and plaster, transformed these figures into representations of Saints, 
which were ranged on the two sides of the broad flight of steps leading 
up to the chief entrance. Thus Jupiter was changed to St. Peter in cope 
and tiara, whilst Hercules did duty for St, Gregory the Great. There 
is a tradition that storms of rain made sad havoc of these transfor- 
mations, revealing the stone gods underneath. Horrified at these 
exhibitions, Dr. Gentili, who resided at one time as professor at Prior 
Park, resolved to pull them down. He procured a long rope, tied it 
round the neck of Jupiter, and got a number of the College boys to lay 
hold of the other end. When all was ready he called to the boys, 
" Now when I say the third time, ' Come down, you great mom fere' 
(speaking in his broken English), all pull together." He had said it 
once, when hearing the shout the Bishop threw up a window and put 
a stop to the contemplated demolition. 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullatliorne. 243 

arrived in London from Sydney, expressing great regret at 
having arrived too late, as his principal object in coming to 
Europe was to solicit the Holy See to appoint me to be 
his Coadjutor. I invited him to Prior Park, and he was 
present at the College Exhibition. I had promised to reside 
at Prior Park for the first month, but I did not slumber 
there. I visited Bristol and Clifton, and sundry missions 
and convents. In short, I took a survey of the district 
which then included the two present dioceses of Clifton and 
Plymouth. At the invitation of the Earl of Shrewsbury, I 
assisted at the opening of the magnificent church at Cheadle. 
I also consecrated an altar at the opening of the church at 
Blackmore Park. Mr. Charles Hansom was the architect 
and I had something to say to that design. 

Before long I began operations in Bristol and Clifton. I 
called Mother Margaret Hallahan and her little Com- 
munity of Dominicanesses from Coventry, and after a time 
placed them in a house in Queen Square, Bristol, where 
they opened a school, and began to visit the sick. As the 
only two churches in Bristol were close together, I made a 
survey of the whole extent of Bristol, and had a plan 
drawn up in four divisions in which I proposed to establish 
four missions, two of which would still require churches 
and schools. In one of these I secured ground and began 
a school in it, to be used provisionally as a chapel. I also 
organised two annual collections throughout the district to 
assist undertakings of this kind. The plan of the four 
missions was completed by my successors. 

The Clifton Mission involves a history. It was begun by 
Father Edgworth, a Franciscan, long before my time. He 
purchased a large plot of ground in a commanding 
situation, and built, in the first place, on one side of it, a 
small convent, intended for a Community of active nuns, 
the chapel of which was used temporarily for the mission, 
and the residence for the priest. He then began a 

244 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathonie . 

magnificent church in freestone on the central ground, and 
that at a time when we had nothing in England but the 
old chapels, with the exception of the church at Moorfields, 
in London. It was planned to stand on a basis more 
extensive than itself, something not unlike in character 
to the Madeleine. The basis consisted of crypts rising, 
because of the inclined ground, considerably above the 
ground on one side. Upon those crypts the large church 
was raised, the walls were nearly completed, and the 
greater part of the columns for a lofty porch in front, 
when the whole property was taken possession of by the 
Glamorganshire Bank for money advanced. Such was 
the state of the Clifton Mission when I came to the 
district ; the church, a great ruin, stood conspicuous to all 
eyes and a disgrace to the Catholics. 

My earnest desire was to build a large church and attach 
the Bishop's residence to it, so as to serve for a cathedral. 
Father Vaughan, the Vicar-General, and Mr. Estcourt 
searched for a site for the purpose in vain. At last the 
Vicar-General suggested the repurchase of the ruin from 
the Bank. It was reported that there was some intention 
of purchasing it to make a market-place of it ; and after 
some negotiations the whole property was purchased of 
the Bank for 3,000, including a mortgage, which a Catholic 
lady had upon it. Of this sum ,1,000 was paid by the 
Dominican Sisters for the little convent that stood apart on 
one side of it. Mother Margaret and her Sisters took 
possession of the convent, and in course of time greatly 
enlarged and beautified it. Schools were opened in the 
crypts, both for boys and girls. I took a house adjoining 
the premises, in which the Vicar-General, my secretary, and 
another priest resided with me. 

The walls of the church had been long exposed to the 
weather, without any roof, and it was of so great a breadth 
without interior supports that the architects of Bristol 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 245 

declared it could never bear a roof. But I sent for Mr. 
Charles Hansom, my former architect, then residing at 
Clifton, and said to him : " I know that these walls will not 
bear the expanse and weight of timber required for the 
roof, nor will the vaulting of the crypts bear pillars of 
stone. You must put your ideals of architecture in your 
pocket and do just as I advise you. You must put long 
sleepers of timber upon the crown of the two series of 
vaults, and upon them raise pillars of timber to the height 
of the wall, which can be cased and capped in wood, and 
from those pillars carry circular arches of wood lengthwise 
and across, upon which to receive the roof." Mr. Hansom 
saw its feasibility and carried it out with success. Windows 
were cut in the walls, and a chancel was formed with stalls 
for a chapter, as I never gave up the hope of seeing the 
Hierarchy re-established. The church held a great many 
people, and in consequence of dignified functions and 
careful preaching it soon began to fill, so that more priests 
were required. But among the greatest religious attractions 
were the popular devotions in the convent chapel, where the 
priest said the Rosary three nights in the week. The 
Litany was sung, and sermons given in the evening, both 
in English and French ; and this formed an attraction which 
drew a number of Catholics to reside at Clifton quite as 
much as the church. 

The next step taken was to build a house adjoining the 
church for the residence of the Bishop and clergy, and the 
rest of the ground in front of it was cleared for a garden. 
But this house was not completed until after I was 
translated to Birmingham. Meanwhile funds had to be 
raised for these works, and the Catholics residing in Clifton 
were very generous.* 

* The subsequent history of Prior Park need not be here recapitu- 
lated. In consequence of the complicated difficulties which had grown 
up in the diocese in connection with this establishment, Bishop 

246 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

Meanwhile good work was going on at Bristol and 
Clifton. A mission was carried on for a fortnight in 
the old chapel at Trenchard Street by Dr. Gentili and 
Father Furlong, which, being the first ever given in 
the Western District, drew many souls to their reli- 
gious duties. But this did not satisfy Dr. Gentili. In 
his ardour he longed to give another mission, which should 
last a month, observing that those who most required to 
be instructed came crowding in at the end of the fortnight, 
when there was no time to do much for them. It was 
therefore arranged that at a later period a mission should 
be given by the two Fathers for a whole month at the 
Church of St. Mary's. This was done in the early part of 

Ullathorne proceeded to Rome in the spring of 1847 to lay a full 
report before the Holy See. A Commission of Bishops was appointed 
by Propaganda to investigate the case, but it was not until after Bishop 
Ullathorne's removal to the Central District that the affairs of the 
College were finally brought to a conclusion. The College was broken 
up, and the property passed for a time into secular hands, whence it 
was at a later period recovered by Dr. Clifford, Bishop of Clifton ; and 
now again flourishes as one of our Catholic colleges. This visit of 
Bishop Ullathorne to Rome in 1847 was the occasion of his first 
presentation to Pope Pius IX., of whom he speaks in one of his letters 
as " truly a man raised up by God." "Mr. Estcourt and I scramble about 
in the afternoons to churches, shrines, and convents. I see Rome in 
altogether a new light from my former visits. Not a single asso- 
ciation of its pagan and classic times can I think of: it seems to me 
completely saturated with the blood of the Martyrs and the prayers of 
the Saints at every step. But its fine things, even its finest churches, 
except the very old ones, do not penetrate the soul like our own 
Gothic churches." He returned to England early in June, 1848. 
The first anniversary of his consecration found him once more at 
Bristol, whence he addressed a touching letter to the Dominican 
Community he had planted there, giving a glimpse of his own interior, 
so seldom laid bare to the eyes of others. " A year of Episcopacy," 
he says, " is a fearful account. I solemnly and sadly feel that I have 
failed in many things for which I had light ; and have slackened from 
many things for which I was not without some strength, and which 
the prayers of God's better servants had obtained for me. I should 
like to do better, but if you had not prayed for me I should most 
certainly have done worse. Every glance at the crucifix before me 
strikes my heart with a keen reproach. Every recollection of the 
sentiments and light of this day twelve months does me the same 

Autobiography of ArchbisJiop Ullathornc. 247 

1848.* But, however successful, these labours were very 
exhausting to the missioners, and especially to Dr. Gentili, 
who would insist on living and sleeping in the sacristy, 
that he might lose no time, but be ready at everyone's call, 
early and late. His mind was also very much tried at that 
time by the revolutionary agitations which were shaking all 
the thrones of Europe ; whilst Charles Albert had begun 
his conflict with Austria, and the Sovereign Pontiff was 
surrounded with those perils which ultimately drove him 
from Rome. His occasional conversations with me showed 
how much these things were agitating him in the midst of 
his work. 

He also poured out to me his regrets at having com- 
pletely mistaken the spirit of the English clergy as a body 
during his earlier knowledge of the English Mission. His 
first experiences were at Prior Park ; his next was in 
working an English country mission at Sheepshead, where 
everything had to be begun, and where he was much 
isolated. But when he began to give retreats in missions 
already established, his eyes were opened. He saw that the 

good office. If it is a difficult thing to be a good Sister of Penance, 
how much more difficult is it to be a good Bishop ! Pray that you 
may have a better Father, for at present he is but the watch-dog at the 
feet of St. Dominic, who holds the flaming torch in his mouth, and 
looks up at the bunch of lily flowers which the Saint holds in his 
hands ready to consume whatever may threaten its purity ! " 

" This mission," says Dr. Ullathorne, in one of his letters, " began 
a new order of things in Bristol." It had its amusing features, to 
which the Bishop often referred. In one of his instructions Dr. Gentili 
had spoken strongly against the vice of drunkenness, specially 
denouncing the intemperance of women. " If a man has a wife who 
gets dronk" he said, " he should take the stick to her." His words 
bore immediate fruit, and the next day several women presented 
themselves with broken heads, complaining that their husbands had 
not been slow to put the missioned exhortation into practice. He felt 
the necessity, therefore, of somewhat qualifying his words. " Last 
night," he said, " I told you that if a man had a wife who got dronk, 
he should take the stick to her. But I did not mean that he should 
beat her with a great thick stick. It may be a leettle, thin one, what 
you call cane." 

248 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

priests, as a rule, thoroughly understood their work, and, 
whilst laborious, knew how to adapt themselves to the 
English mind by avoiding haste and awakening public 
excitement, which only roused up adversaries to counter- 
act their efforts. I had had ocular proofs that he had made 
representations to Rome under his earlier impressions. He 
admitted this ; but hoped, he said, to do justice to the 
English clergy, to their steady, quiet, and prudent labours, 
and their self-denial, in letters to be written as soon as he 
could have leisure for the purpose. 

But that leisure never came. Their Superior, Dr. Pagani, 
came to see the two Fathers before they left Bristol, and I 
represented to him in what an exhausted condition they 
were, especially Dr. Gentili, and how hazardous it would be 
for them to take up other work until they had some rest. 
Mother Margaret, who with her Dominican Sisters had 
worked hard, under Dr. Gentili's directions, among the 
women and children during the whole mission, made 
similar representations. The answer was, that arrange- 
ments had been made for their immediately beginning other 
missions in Dublin ; but that when these were concluded 
the Fathers should have proper time for rest They went 
and what they did in Dublin, and how Dr. Gentili died, in 
the midst of that work, is matter of history. Yet however 
great the grief, however immense the loss to the English 
Mission, I was not surprised, for he was half dead from 
mental and moral exhaustion before he began his work in 
Dublin ; and the toil and excitement that came upon him 
with the rush of that fervid people to hear his discourses, 
and to reach his confessional, was too much for his mortal 



NOT to dwell longer on the details of administration in 
the Western District, my administration of which lasted 
scarcely for the term of two years, during which I had twice 
to go to Rome, I now come to the most important and 
eventful of those labours which mark the track of my 
episcopal life. But this will require a short preface. 

From the time of Queen Elizabeth the desire was con- 
stantly growing for the restoration of the normal state of 
Episcopal government in the Church that still remained in 
England, though so diminished in the number of its mem- 
bers, and under so fearful a persecution. I have given the 
history of that movement in the work that I published in 
the year 1871, entitled " The History of the Restoration of 
the Catholic Hierarchy in England." I will only add here 
that I wrote that book after the movement began in Par- 
liament for the repeal of the Ecclesiastical Titles Act ; my 
object being to prove to the members of Parliament, that 
before that Hierarchy was re-established, every possible 
precaution had been taken by the Holy See to avoid giving 
offence to the Government and people of England ; for 
which purpose I give a minute account of every step in the 
negotiation and preparation for that great act, as between 
the representative of the English Vicars- Apostolic and the 
Holy See, drawn as well from the documents upon which 
it was based as from notes taken at the time of the con- 

250 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

versations and discussions as they occurred, day by day, 
with all their circumstances. To that book I refer for the 
fullest and most authentic details. All I shall do here will 
be to give the briefest sketch of those transactions. 

The Constitution by which the Church in England had 
hitherto been regulated was drawn up by Pope Benedict 
XIV., one of the greatest of canonists ; it was published in 
1756, and was known by the name of its first words, 
Apostolicum Ministerium. But we had long outgrown 
the provisions of that Constitution. It was drawn up when 
we were still under heavy Penal laws, and liberty of con- 
science was denied to us ; when our Colleges were abroad, 
and all our clergy trained abroad ; when the Religious 
Orders had not a house in England ; when there was 
nothing resembling a parochial division ; but the few- 
places of worship were private chapels, and the clergy who 
served them were the chaplains of noblemen or gentlemen. 
But the Penal laws had been now removed, we had ob- 
tained freedom of action, the Catholics of England had 
grown important by increase of numbers and of churches; 
all the institutions belonging to the Church had been 
reinstated among us, except the ordinary Government 
belonging to a Province of the Church, and the power 
which that implies of making Synodal laws for our regu- 
lation. The Church in America had obtained its Hierarchy, 
Australia had obtained its Hierarchy; the West Indies 
had obtained a Hierarchy ; the Catholics of England were 
still left to be guided by the old rules of the Penal times, 
which were no longer applicable as of old. 

In the Apostolic Letter constituting the Hierarchy it is 
stated that many petitions had come from England in 
favour of its establishment. From the days of Mr. Pitt, 
English statesmen had repeatedly expressed their wish to 
see the Catholic Bishops in England made Bishops in 
Ordinary, as being more conformable to the principles of 

Autobiography of A re/ibis hop Ullatkorne. 251 

the British Constitution than Vicars of the Pope. In the 
report of the Episcopal meeting in London in 1845 I find 
Bishop Griffiths proposing to petition the Holy See for 
the restoration of the Hierarchy. The Bishops assembled 
agreed to this proposal, and Bishops Wiseman and Baggs 
were requested to draw up a statement of the reasons for, 
and the difficulties that would attend the change, for trans- 
mission to Rome. 

At the annual meeting of 1847, the first at which I 
assisted, it was found that confusion had reached its 
height. Certain laymen had made grave representations 
to Propaganda, as unjust as they were unfounded, against 
the venerable Bishop Griffiths, and had become active in 
thwarting the councils of the Vicars-Apostolic with respect 
to obtaining legal provision for the security of our eccle- 
siastical property ; I refer especially to Romilly's Bill for 
Settling Catholic Trusts, on which advice had been sought 
from Rome, and which, through the intervention of these 
persons, was set aside altogether. 

With these facts before them the Bishops resolved to 
request Bishops Wiseman and Sharpies to proceed to 
Rome, as well to explain matters on the part of the Vicars- 
Apostolic as to feel their way towards obtaining a Hie- 
rarchy. In conversing with Cardinal (then Monsignor) 
Barnabo, Secretary of Propaganda, and representing the 
serious existing embarrassments, he said : " You will always 
have these troubles t.ll you ask for the Hierarchy: ask for 
it, and I will support you." The Revolution was then 
making rapid progress in Italy, and both Bishops were 
obliged to return to England, where, shortly afterwards, 
Bishop Griffiths died. But the question had been mooted, 
and the Vicars-Apostolic received a letter from the Holy 
See, requesting them to draw up a scheme for dividing the 
eight Vicariatcs into at least twelve Bishoprics. Dr. Wise- 
man had succeeded Bishop Griffiths as Pro-Vicar-Apostolic 

252 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

of the London District, and at an episcopal meeting held 
in November, 1847, a scheme to this effect was actually 
drawn up. At another, which opened in London on 
May 2nd, 1848, we were requested by the Holy See to 
present three names to Rome for a Coadjutor to Bishop 
Walsh in the Central District, and also names for a suc- 
cessor to Bishop Riddell. The difficulties before alluded 
to still existing, it was thought desirable to send some 
priest of standing and capacity to Rome to represent these 
difficulties, and act as an agent for pressing on the Hie- 
rarchy After various proposals, Bishop Brown, of the Welsh 
District, suggested that a bishop would be the best envoy, 
and that I should be requested to undertake the work. As 
all the other bishops promptly united in this request, I put 
myself at the service of my brethren. I was to present a 
memorial to the Holy See, signed by all the bishops, ex- 
posing their sentiments with regard to the representations 
made at Rome by discontented persons ; I was to en- 
deavour to obtain the early appointment of a new Vicar- 
Apostolic in the North, and I was to press on the affair of 
the Hierarchy. After making a few arrangements at 
Clifton, where I left Father Hendren as my Vicar-General, 
I started for Rome in the May of 1848. Whilst at Paris an 
attempt was made to establish the Red Republic, and I 
was an eye-witness of the chief scenes of that event. 

The Republic established after the overthrow of King 
Louis Philippe was still on foot, under its three heads, 
and its Constituent Assembly : but committees of the 
Red Republican school were sitting here and there, with 
truculent fellows keeping sentry at the doors, red-capped, 
red-sashed the very scum of the populace. The day 
before the attempt they conducted a funeral procession of 
men who had died of their wounds received on the barri- 
cades in the first conflict. The whole affair was evidently 
a scene got up to move the populace. After the two 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 253 

hearses followed a number of wounded men, bandaged 
and crawling along ; and then came the wives and children 
of the dead or wounded. The procession was flanked by 
Red Republicans in their ordinary clothes, but with red 
sashes, and some of them with red caps, carrying their 
muskets with fixed bayonets as a guard of honour. They 
were all of a piece, a dirty, ghastly procession ; and in 
sepulchral tones they called upon all persons to take off 
their hats as they slowly passed through the streets. 

The next morning I was taking an early walk when, 
crossing the Place de Carousel, I saw a group of some 
twenty men in blue blouses, with a tall, well-made man in 
their centre, evidently the commander of the group, a man 
of respectable as well as commanding appearance, head 
and shoulders above the rest, wearing also a blue blouse 
over his suit of black broadcloth. They at once recalled 
to my mind St. Real's description of the appearance and 
bearing of the conspirators of Venice before their outbreak. 
They walked on with rapid step, a firm purpose in each 
movement, their heads bent forward, their hands tightly 
grasping the bludgeons with which each of them was armed. 
I stood gazing at them, astonished that no one of the many 
passengers across the great Palace Square seemed to take 
any especial notice of them that the sentries of the 
National Guard and the police eyed this strange group 
with indifference. As to the regular army, it had been 
removed by the Republican Committee from the city to 
the suburbs. I was myself quite certain that these men 
were proceeding to some rendezvous, in contemplation of 
some desperate act ; and this in connection with the Red 
Republican exhibition of the previous day. 

Some hours later, I think about eleven o'clock, I was 
passing, in company with Dr. Nicholson, in a hired carriage 
by the doors of the Legislative Assembly, when we saw 
those very men, accompanied by others of a like descrip- 

254 Autobiography of Arc/ibis hop U Hat home. 

tion forcing their way into the House. The alarm was at 
once given, an officer seized our horse's head, turned us 
round and directed us to proceed back over the bridge. 
We did so, and on reaching the Place de la Concorde I 
got out, leaving my companion, who was of a nervous 
disposition, to go on his way, I myself being curious to see 
what would come next. 

The drums were beating the reveille all over Paris, 
and regiments of National Guards and Gardes Mobiles 
(the latter consisting of the gamins of Paris, with no other 
military costume than their native rags, though completely 
armed and regimented) came marching into the Place de 
la Concorde and around the Legislative Chambers, till in 
little more than an hour there were 100,000 men under 
arms concentrated there. Placed on the high ground above 
the Place I saw all that passed. Beneath me the General 
commanding the National Guard dismounted, came in 
front of a regiment, waved his sword, and said a few words, 
when cries arose from the regiment full of bitter resentment 
and indignation. The men rushed from the front rank 
upon him, and tore off his epaulettes. In the next 
morning's papers I learnt that he had ordered them to 
ground arms and unfix bayonets : and that they had 
proclaimed him a traitor and renounced his command. 
He was in the conspiracy. 

That evening I dined with a party at the Miss O'Farrell's, 
in the Rue Rivoli. As Paris was in a great state of excite- 
ment, when the rest of the party had retired I stayed for 
the protection of the ladies, in case of any emergency, till late 
at night. A few doors from them was the house occupied 
by Sobriere and his gang of conspirators. A considerable 
force was concentrated here, and the police entered 
Sobriere's house to arrest him and his companions. But 
for some time he was not to be found, till at last they 
pulled him down by the legs from inside the chimney. 

Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 255 

The ladies and myself watched all that went on in the 
streets from the window. The National Guards exhibited 
their bourgeois qualities to perfection. They sang the first 
lines of " Mourir pour la Patrie," and other such rhapsodies 
never getting beyond the second line from defect, it 
seemed, of memory and they talked in short, hurried 
sentences with one another, as they marched along in very 
wavering lines. 

One regiment had a soft-looking stout man at its head, 
with whom a man of the street tried to enter into contro- 
versy, asking what all this meant, etc.; to which the 
weary marching man replied, obviously annoyed, yet in- 
capable of resisting the spirit of colloquy : " C'est assez qu'il 
y a quelquc chose." Then, turning to his men, he said : 
" Ne repondez pas." But this questioner was tenacious, 
and a group was gathering around him. Suddenly a pistol 
was fired in the colonnade close to the house from which 
we were looking on, when the regiment, apparently without 
orders, halted, faced round to the colonnade, and levelled 
their muskets. I then requested the ladies to retire to the 
back room, which they did very reluctantly, wishing to see 
the continuation of the fun. The soldiers, however, soon 
recovered arms, faced to their first position, and marched 
on. At last we heard cries of " Vive la ligne ! " and saw 
a regiment of the regular cavalry advancing amid the cheers 
of the people. It was evident the bulk of the population 
did not want the Red Republic. That night orders were 
given that the windows should be illuminated to furnish 
light to the streets for military operations. There was 
apprehension also lest the city should be set on fire. But, 
the night passed quietly, the chief conspirators being 
already under arrest at the Hotel de Ville. 

Next morning I went out early. The troops of the line 
were bivouacked in the streets ; and a strong force of 
cavalry guarded the approaches to the Place de la 

256 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

Concorde and the Legislative Assembly. A few hours 
later there was a great concentration of the National Guard 
round the Hotel de Ville, and I saw the prisoners carried 
off, accompanied by a strong force, to Vincennes. It was 
amusing to see the bourgeois soldiery carrying their loaves 
of bread, and sometimes their sausages, on their bayonets, 
where they roasted and fried in the sun, and were likely 
when eaten to require a good deal of help to get them 
down from the wine-casks of the vivandieres, who were 
in great force on the occasion. One poor girl I observed 
in her regimentals halting along with a lame leg, and with 
difficulty keeping her place. The citizen forces were in 
high glee at their bloodless victory. 

I went on the same evening towards Marseilles, and at 
every town we came to the officials, with tri-coloured 
badges across their breasts, were vigilant in inspecting 
passports and examining the features of travellers. 

[The history of the negotiations for the restoration of 
the English Hierarchy, and of the part taken therein by 
Bishop Ullathorne, has been published by him in his little 
volume, entitled "The Catholic Hierarchy in England," 
which is in great measure drawn from this portion of his 
autobiography, and which, therefore, it is unnecessary to 
reprint here. Although these negotiations were concluded 
in the year 1848, the Revolution in Rome and the absence 
of the Pope, from the November of that year until the 
April of 1850, necessarily suspended all business. Jt was 
not, therefore, until the September of 1850 that the Brief 
for erecting the Hierarchy was published. Before this 
took place, however, important changes had taken place 
in England. On the death of Bishop Walsh, Bishop 
Ullathorne was appointed to be his successor in the 
Midland District, in spite of his own remonstrances and 
his attachment to his first episcopal home.] 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 257 

In leaving Clifton for Birmingham (he says), it was 
with painful regret that I parted with those of the clergy, 
and with those convents that had so zealously and loyally 
stood by me and supported me in my difficulties. My 
plans for Bristol and Clifton were coming into practical 
shape, and I greatly regretted leaving them unfinished. 
The Community of my own Dominican children, who 
had followed me from Coventry, and whom I had cherished 
with so peculiar a care, were now expanding in numbers 
and discipline, as well as in their works ; and these also I 
had to leave behind, promising, however, to establish a 
filiation of them under my own jurisdiction as soon as I could 
see my way to it. My last act was to commend them to 
the care and kindness of my successor, Bishop Hendren. 
My faithful friend and coadjutor, Mr. Estcourt, accom- 
panied me to Birmingham, where he continued to act 
as my secretary. 

On arriving at Birmingham I was received by the main 
body of the clergy of the district in St. Chad's Cathedral ; * 
Dr. Newman and the Oratorian Fathers, who had recently 
taken possession of Old Oscott, were also present. The 
clergy dined with me, and Dr. Weedall addressed me, in 
their name, in a beautiful discourse, in which his loyalty 
and that of his brethren, the clergy, to the one appointed 
over them by the Holy See, was cordially expressed and 
cordially received ; and what is much more, that loyalty 
was realised to the letter. At this crisis in my agitated 
life I found myself placed in a peaceful jurisdiction over a 
united clergy, conspicuous for their devotion to the 
episcopal authority. And my difficulties in my new 
responsibility were not so much of a moral as of a material 
character.-)- It is not my intention, however, to carry this 

* August soth, 1848. 

t " From causes that need not be specified," says a writer in the 
Oscotian (July, 1866), "the temporal administration both of the 


258 Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne. 

narrative into the administration of the Central District, or 
of the Birmingham Diocese, nor will I dwell on the delirious 
excitement into which the crafty writings of a certain 
newspaper, and the intemperate letter of a certain states- 
man, threw the minds of many of our countrymen during 
the six months that followed the promulgation of our 
Hierarchy in 1850. The first Provincial Synod of West- 
minster was held, for greater convenience, at St. Mary's 
College, Oscott, during the month of July, 1852. The 
conducting of this Synod was the masterpiece of Cardinal 
Wiseman. He it was who drew up the Decrees, excepting 

missions (in the Central District) and of Oscott College were sadly 
embarrassed. Bishop Ullathorne saw but one way for restoring the 
balance of accounts to a healthy condition. He resolved to lake the 
clergy into his confidence, and to gain their consent to a general 
reduction of income." He moreover set before his people the 
necessity for economy in a series of financial Pastorals, explaining that 
so long as the existing embarrassments continued it was necessary 
that instead of expending money on new undertakings every resource 
should be husbanded till the claims of justice could be satisfied. It 
is due to his memory to say that before his deaih the great burden 
of debt which he had inherited from his predecessors was entirely 
liquidated. At what personal sacrifices, and with what a persevering 
exercise of prudence and self-control this was done, is probably known 
to few. To confidential friends he has more than once said that so 
great was his sense of the obligation that thus lay on him that if so 
much as ^5 came into his hands of which he was free to dispose, it 
was always laid aside and applied to the one great object. " Never 
despise small sums," he would say ; "all great debts are discharged, 
as they are for the most part incurred, by the accumulation of small 
sums." How severely this duty, however, told on him, in his long 
and patient labours to fulfil it, may be guessed from one passage in a 
letter written to Bishop Brown (1856), in which, after giving certain 
explanations, he thus concludes : " It has been my misery ever since I 
wore a mitre to have to deal with debts and difficulties ; and if it had 
not been for the good state of the clergy of this diocese I know not how 
I could have gone through with it. Nothing but the inward fear that 
it would be a cowardly running away from the will of God has kept 
me from secretly departing from the diocese, and either burying 
myself in some lonely place in a remote country, like the old hermits, 
or labouring there for my daily bread. I am quite aware that this 
was a temptation, and it has gone ; but it will show you how the 
administration of this diocese has pressed on me." 

Autobiography of Archbishop U Hat home. 259 

the Constitutions for the Cathedral Chapters, which were 
committed to Bishop Grant and myself, though their main 
substance is the work of Bishop Grant. The unity and 
harmony which pervaded that Synod is one of the most 
delightful reminiscences of my episcopal life. Certainly 
no one but Cardinal Wiseman, who concentrated his whole 
capacious mind upon it in one of his happiest moods, could 
have brought it to so successful an issue, or have given it so 
great an amount of ecclesiastical splendour. And thus the 
rule and precedent was established for the conducting of 
our future Synods. 

With the completion of our Hierarchal Order I close 
these reminiscences, uncertain whether at a future period I 
may resume them or not. 



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May be called a sequel to the author's "Life of St. Patrick, "being 
a study chiefly in the 5th, I2th, I7th, and iQth centuries of those 
influences which have preserved the Faith in Ireland, and obtained 
for that country the exalted, if unintentional praise of Lord 
Macaulay, when he says, "Alone amongst the Northern Nations 
Ireland adhered to the Ancient Faith." 

The Wisdom and Wit of Blessed Thomas More. Edited, 

with Introduction, by the Rev. T. E. BRIDGETT, C.SS.R., author 
of "Life of Blessed Thomas More," "Life of Blessed John 
Fisher," &c. 

Aquinas EthlCUS; or, the Moial Teaching of St. Thomas. A 
translation of the principal portions of the second part of the 
Summa Theologica, with Notes. By the Rev. JOSEPH RiCKABY,S.J. 
Quarterly Series. 

The Spirit Of St. Ignatius, Founder of the Society of Jesus. 

Translated from the French of the Rev. Fr. XAVIER DE FRAN- 

ciosi, of the same Society. 
Succat ; or, Sixty Years of the Life of St. Patrick. By the Very 


No. 1. 1892. 




ALLIES, T. W. (K.C. S.G.) 

Formation of Christendom. Vols. I., II., and III., 

(all out of print.) . 

Church and State as seen in the Formation of Christen- 
dom, 8vo, pp. 472, cloth . (out of print. ) 
The Throne of the Fisherman, built by the Carpenter's 
Son, the Root, the Bond, and the Crown of Christ- 
endom. Demy 8vo ; jC 10 6 

The Holy See and the Wandering of the Nations. 

Demy 8vo o 10 6 

Peter's Rock in Mohammed's Flood. Demy 8vo. . o 10 6 
" It would be quite superfluous at this hour of the day to recommend 
Mr. Allies' writings to English Catholics. Those of our readers who 
remember the article on his writings in the Katholik, know that 
he is esteemed in Germany as one of our foremost writers." 
Dublin Review. 


Leaves from St. John Chrysostom, With introduction 

by T. W. Allies, K.C. S.G. Crown 8vo, cloth . 060 
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markably pure and graceful ; page after page reads as if it were 
original. No commentator, Catholic or Protestant, has ever sur- 
passed St. John Chrysostom in the knowledge of Holy Scripture, 
and his learning was of a kind which is of service now as it was at 
the time when the inhabitants of a great city hung on his words." 


Cathedra Petri. Third and Enlarged Edition. Cloth 060 
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useful for educated men inquiring after truth or anxious to know 
the positive testimony of Christian antiquity in favour of Papal 
claims." Month. 

Which is the True Church ? Fifth Edition . .014 

The Church and the Sects o i o 

Ditto, Ditto. Second Series. . . .016 


Hymns of the Church for the Ecclesiastical Year. 
Translated from the Sacred Offices by various 
Authors, with Modern, Original, and other Hymns, 
and an Appendix of Earlier Versions. Selected and 
Arranged by ORBY SHIPLEY, M.A. 

Plain Cloth, lettered 056 

Edition de luxe . . . . . . . o 10 6 



Ingersoll. By the Rev. A. Lambert, (over 100,000 copies 
sold in America). Tenth edition. Paper. . . . p o 6 
Cloth . . . . . . . .010 


The Jesuits : their Foundation and History. 2 vols. 

crown 8vo, cloth, red edges . . . . .0150 

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BOWDEN, REV. H. S. (of the Oratory) Edited by. 

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Discipline of Drink .036 

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Ritual of the New Testament. An essay on the prin- 
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FISHER by HOLBEIN, and other Illustrations. 2nd Ed. 076 
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VIII. With Portrait of the Martyr taken from the 

Crayon Sketch made by Holbein in 1527 . . o 7 6 

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title declares, a study not only of the life, but also of the writings of 

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of view, and the result is, it seems to us, a more complete and 

finished portrait of the man, mentally and physically, than has been 

hitherto presented." A thenaum. 

BRIDGET!, REV. T. E. (C.SS.R,), Edited by. 

Souls Departed. By CARDINAL ALLEN. First pub- 
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EYRE, MOST REV. CHARLES, (Abp. of Glasgow). 

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Precious Pearl of Hope in the Mercy of God, The. 
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Meditations for every Day in the Year, exclusive of 
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Edward the Sixth : Supreme Head. Second edition. 

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New and Improved Translation of the Complete Works 
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LIVIUS, REV. T. (M.A., C.SS.R.) 

St. Peter, Bishop of Rome ; or, the Roman Episcopate 
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Mary in the Epistles ; or, The Implicit Teaching of 
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The Life of St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland. Fourth 

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The Science of the Saints in Practice. By John Bap- 

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QUARTERLY SERIES Edited by the Rev. H. J. 
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The Baptism of the King : Considerations on the Sacred 

Passion. By the Rev. H. J. Coleridge, S. J. . . 076 
The Mother of the King. Mary during the Life of 

Our Lord 076 

The Hours of the Passion. Taken from the Life of 

Christ by Ludolph the Saxon . . . .076 

The Mother of the Church. Mary during the first 

Apostolic Age 060 

The Life of St. Bridget of Sweden. By the late F. J. 

M. A. Partridge ... ...060 

The Teachings and Counsels of St. Francis Xavier. 

From his Letters 050 

Garcia Moreno, President of Ecuador. 1821 1875. 

From the French of the Rev. P. A. Berthe, C.SS.R. 

By Lady Herbert 076 

The Life of St. Alonso Rodriguez. By Francis 

Goldie, of the Society of Jesus . . . .076 
Letters of St. Augustine. Selected and arranged by 

Mary H. Allies . 066 

A Martyr from the Quarter-DeckAlexis Clerc, S.J. 

By Lady Herbert *. .050 

Acts of the English Martyrs, hitherto unpublished. 

By the Rev. John H. Pollen, S.J., with a Preface 

by the Rev. John Morris, S.J. . . . .076 
Life of St. Francis di Geronimo, S.J. By A. M. Clarke. 076 


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The Holy Infancy. 

The Preparation of the Incarnation .... ,0 7 6 
The Nine Months. The Life of our Lord in the Womb. 076 
The Thirty Years. Our Lord's Infancy and Early Life. 076 

The Public Life of Our Lord. 

The Ministry of St. John Baptist ... 066 

The Preaching of the Beatitudes . . . .066 
The Sermon on the Mount. Continued. 2 Parts, each 066 
The Training of the Apostles. Parts!., II., III., IV. 

each 066 

The Preaching of the Cross. Part I. . . .066 

The Preaching of the Cross. Parts II., III. each 060 
Passiontide. Parts I. II. and III., each . . .066 
Chapters on the Parables of Our Lord . . .076 

Introductory Volumes. 

The Life of our Life. Harmony of the Life of Our 
Lord, with Introductory Chapters and Indices. 
Second edition. Two vols. . . . . . o 15 O 

The Works and Words of our Saviour, gathered from 

the Four Gospels . . . . . . .076 

The Story of the Gospels. Harmonised for Meditation 076 

Full lists on application. 

"Emmanuel." Being the Life of Our Lord Jesus 
Christ reproduced in the Mysteries of the Tabernacle. 
By Mrs. Abel Ram, author of " The most Beautiful 
among the Children of Men," &c. Crown 8vo, cloth 050 
" The foundation of the structure is laid with the greatest skill and 
the deepest knowledge of what constitutes true religion, and every 
chapter ends with an eloquent and soul-inspiring appeal for one or 
other of the virtues which the different scenes in the life of Our 
Saviour set prominently into view." Catholic Times. 


Manual of Scripture History. Being an Analysis of the 
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J.B.Richards, D.D., Oblate of St. Charles ; Inspector 
of Schools in the Diocese of Westminster. Cloth. 040 
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RYDER, REV. H. I. D. (of the Oratory.) 

Catholic Controversy: A Reply to Dr. Littledale's 

" Plain Reasons. " Sixth edition . . . .026 
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The lighter charms of a brilliant and graceful style are added to the 
solid merits of this handbook of contemporary controversy." Irish 


Life of St. Philip Benizi, of the Order of the Servants 
of Mary. Crown 8vo . . . . . .080 

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eminent Servant of Mary." American Catholic Quarterly. 
"Very scholar-like, devout and complete." Dublin Review. 


STANTON, REV. R. (of the Oratory.) 

A Menology of England and Wales ; or, Brief Mem- 
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according to the Calendar. Together with the Mar- 
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order of the Cardinal Archbishop and the Bishops 
of the Province of Westminster. Demy 8vo, cloth jo 14 o 

The Life of Jean-Jacques Olier, Founder of the 
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Post 8vo, cloth, pp. xxxvi. 628 . . . . o 15 a 
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and imitate ; one whose circumstances and surroundings were suffi- 
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own personal duties and daily occupations." Dublin Review. 

The Life and Glories of St. Joseph, Husband of 
Mary, Foster-Father of Jesus, and Patron of the 
Universal Church. Grounded on the Dissertations of 
Canon Antonio Vitalis, Father Jose Moreno, and other 
writers. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . .060 

Endowments of Man, &c. Popular edition. . .070 
Groundwork of the Christian Virtues : do. . . . 070 

Christian Patience, . do. do. . .070 

Ecclesiastical Discourses . . . . . .060 

Memoir of Bishop Willson. . . . . .026 


The Life and Labours of St. Thomas of Aquin. 

Abridged and edited by Dom Jerome Vaughan, 

O.S.B. Second Edition. (Vol. I., Benedictine 

Library.) Crown 8vo. Attractively bound . .066 

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such remarkable and repeated commendations." Freeman's Journal. 


The Clothes of Religion. A reply to popular Positivism. 036 
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"Really modelsof what such essays should be." Church Quarterly 


The Canons and Decrees of the Sacred and CEcumenical 
Council of Trent, celebrated under the Sovereign 
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slated by the Rev. J. WATERWORTH. To which 
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Fabiola. A Tale of the Catacombs. . . 33. 6d. and 040 
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